Age of waterfall (Rate of Recession (Rate of Erosion - Hayakawa 2009…
Age of waterfall
Rate of Recession
Rate of Erosion - Hayakawa 2009 equation
Bottom soft layer of rock (we figured out this is not soft rock but different lava flows)
Hakayawa 2015 in the introduction provides evidence that the waterfall recession in a lava layered area occurs by cyclic event. Including the freeze thaw weathering and splash erosion at the lower layers of the waterfall.
Top hard layer of rock
Gilbert 1890 The History of Niagara Falls explanation of overhang collapse. However, Hayakawa 2010 presents an argument against such and presents another hypothesis that due to the consistent hard bedrock layers throughout it is not a cyclic overhang collapse but rather a top layer erosion which eventually causes the recession. The lower part below erodes faster causing an overhang due to freeze thaw weathering of the rock.
Paper on erosion of lip with mathematical calculations - Haviv et al. Amplified erosion above waterfalls and over steepened bedrock reaches.
Church & Slaymaker maximum amount of specific sediment yields
Water volume / discharge
Depth of plunge
nott 1996 paper on reading a plunge pool to find flood evidence
scheingross 2017 on plunge pool erosion
Length of the overhang
haviv 2006 on amplified erosion above waterfall
Depth of cave below overhang
Width of waterfall lip
Growth Factor of tree
Amount of Recession
Distance from original knickpoint
Berlin2007 on knickpoint propagation
Hayakawa 2009 equasion