WHC Chapter 28 (Section 3: Europe and N. America (The U.S. and Canada,…
WHC Chapter 28
Section 3: Europe and N. America
Winds of change
Reunification Woes: Social democrats replaced Christian democrats in W. Germany. In 1972, Chancellor Willy Brandt signed a treaty that led to greater contact between E. and W. Germany.
Uncertainties in France: In the 1970s a political shift was caused by a deteriorating economy. In 1981, Socialists gained power in National Assembly. François Mitterrand was elected president. During this presidency the minimum wage was increased, 39 hour work week was set, and higher taxes for the rich were all out into play.
The U.S. and Canada
Canada: Major economic recession in Canada and the Liberals came into power. Pierre Trudeau became prime minister and was dedicated to preserving a United Canada. The Official Languages Act which allowed bothe English and French to be used in federal civil service was put into place.
Nixon Ford and Carter: Nixon- Campaigned for "law and order" issues and the slow down of racial desegregation to appeal to southern whites. He used illegal methods to gain political info. about his opponents. This is known as the Watergate Scandal.
Ford- Became president when Nixon resigned.
Carter- Elected against Ford. During his presidency there was high inflation and a decline in average earnings. This was caused by a drop in American living standards.
Reagan Bush and Clinton: Reagan- the Reagan Revolution sent U.S. policies in new directions. Reagan cut back on welfare state, decreased spending on food stamps, school lunch programs, and job programs. Spending policies lead to budget deficits.
Bush- Succeeded Reagan as president. Had an inability to deal with the federal deficit and economic downturn. This allowed Bill Clinton to be elected president.
Clinton- Clinton was a new kind of democrat. He favored republican policies of the 1980s. Shift in politics did not end with a democrat.
Bush 9/11: George W. Bush had most of his attention on terrorism during his presidency. Bush vowed to fight terrorism and led a coalition of countries in a war against the Taliban in Afghanistan.
G.B. and Thatcherism: There was intense fighting between Catholics and Protestants in N. Ireland. Margaret Thatcher, first female prime minister of Britain, pledged to limit social welfare, restrict Union power, and end inflation. Thatcherism was born.
Section 4: Western Society and Culture
The Quickening Pace of Change
Science and Technology: An example is the space race when the Soviets launched Sputnik I, Kennedy predicted America would land on the moon in a decade. Post war tech led to rapid change. Chemical fertilizers produced higher-yield crops but destroyed ecological valance of streams, rivers, and woodlands. This caused disagreements.
Changes in Women's Lives: Women's roles in the workforce have affected family size and population growth. Women work to support family.
Changes in the Family: The number of people in Europe getting married decreased and people are getting married older. The divorce rate has also gone up.
Women's Movement: Forced politicians to address "gender stereotyping", restricting ability based on gender.
Culture and Identity
Trend in Art: Postmodernism is a revival of traditional painting styles and traditional crafts.
Nationalism and Regional Identity: The Basque region is in the western Pyrenees. Part of the territory belongs to Spain and France. Most Basques accept this but some do not.
Popular Culture: Popular culture is entertainment created for profit and a mass audience. An example is the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich.
Religious Trends: apeople define themselves through their religion, it influences national customs and social attitudes. Europeans feel that non-Christian immigrants are threatening their culture.