W7: MANAGING FOR SOCIAL INCLUSION (WHAT IS DIVERSITY? (CHANGING PARADIGMS,…
W7: MANAGING FOR SOCIAL INCLUSION
WHAT IS DIVERSITY?
Refers to the presence of differences.
Primary Dimensions: Often unalterable (can change) and have strong effects on people's perceptions.
Age, gender, race, physical ability, sexual orientation, ethnicity...
Secondary Dimensions: Significant in shaping us, but are also shapeable in return (can change as well).
Income, geographic location, work back ground, parental status, religious belief, education,
Describes differences in race, gender, age, ethnicity, physical ability, ... among other individual differences.
the degree to which the organisation is open to anyone who can do their job, regardless of their diversity attributes. Best organisations are often inclusive bc they value talents, idea, potential of all members.
Misconception that equal opportunities led to equal outcomes (Liff, 1999).
Shifting paradigm from achieving sameness to celebrating differences. Make everything uniform, see everyone the same
Traditionally, equally management focused on legislative requirements. Law require organisation not to discriminate
However, still tends to be the focus of "diversity". Achieving sameness still focus on difference
3 CASES: :warning:
is the key difference between diversity & equal opportunities
Good business sense
Reflects potential market
Attracting best talent
Reducing discrimination costs
SOCIAL JUSTICE CASE
Inequality ids unfair and employers have a social duty to prevent inequality in their organisations
Based on respect and knowledge
Situated upon moral principles of fairness and equity in a "civilized society". in a country like aus, it is the right thing to do
Multicultural teams now the norm
Outsourcing brings both financial rewards and ethical/ business challenges
Flow of people around the globe greater than ever
Competition on opportunity on a transnational and international scale
Policies must reflect global dynamics of work
3 REASONS COMBINED
There is no best case for diversity
Each has weaknesses, to justify diversity, organisations and managers have to consider all three.
SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY :warning:
Groups give us a sense of social identity: a sense of belonging to the social world
We divide the world into us vs. them (in groups vs out groups)
Social psychology theory: Explain cognitions and behaviour with the help of group processes
3 COGNITIVE PROCESSES
The person;s collective identity becomes their ingroup, and participation boots selfesteem and creates a sense of belonging
Identify out-groups, who are seen as posing a threat to the ingroup (new member class, someone from a different ethic background,...)
The process by which someone identify with an in-group more overtly
The process by which someone compare themselves and their group with other groups
They then identify favourable bias towards the group in which they belong
Often seen in social groups or subcultures based on clohing, music, sporting teams, political beliefs.(high school)
The process of categorising ppl to understand and identify them
labelling one another based on gender, interest, ethnicity, religion, occupations...
; subconsciously or unsubconsiously
Not always negative and is different to stereotyping
In this process, individual also decide which group they and other ppl belong to
in-group & out-group categorisation happens here. when u start label which person is in my group or not
: a person's sense of who they are based on their group membership, behave differently base on group setting
unique traits that make you, you (personality, appearance...)
A Person has multiple "selves" that correspond to widening circles of group membership. eg: in front of students, mulyadi appear as lecturer, strict, but if his friends come up he will be another person
There is a persistent tendency for participants to allocate more points to ppl in their own group. ppl in diff group, u show favouritism u think that r ingroup
In the process of forming our social idnetities, we compare ingroup vs outgroup
Members of ingroup tend to
Maz the difference between 2 (social comparison)
Minimize perception of differences between ingroup members
HOW TO MANAGE
Response to legislative context
Educational and development programs for particular groups (if u immigrant organisation will provide educational program for u to fit in)
Reasonable adjustment (eg: law for disability)
Also include special conditions for particular groups. (expats,)
Differences between 'positive action' and 'positive dicrimination'
Often controversial - not the way to help women
Initiatives that focus on underrepresented groups (not enough female then hire more)
Can also take more moderate forms (mentoring)
Voluntary set of coporate practices
Interventions which provide: awareness of diversity issues, tools to manage situation with recognition and respects, space to think n reflect on diversity at work.
May target particular group:(eg: upper management or future leaders)
To be effective
Must challenge underlying biases, rather than 'sugar coat' as a part of training program
Must be relevant to everyone ,look at organisation as a whole, capabilities, requirements...
Modifying policies and structures
Policies and practices oftern assume a male breadwinner model
Diversity diagnosed thru demographic, horizontal and vertical ppl audits.
Addressing indirect discrimination
Exploring recruitment strategies
Providing flexible working practices for all
Enforcing parental leave for all
CHALLENGES IN DIVERSITY
Managers faced with difficult decisions when organisational beliefs clas with cultural norms or even national legislation
Also an issue for domestic organisations in being sensitive whilst maintaining fairness and equality for all
Legislation may differ across different national settings
Resistance to diversity program priorities (distracting for organisations's real work)
Unsupportive social atmosphere (diverse employee may be excluded from social events...)
Fear of reverse (nguoc lai) discrimination. eg: female being promoted over more qualified male.