Case Study 1 observation notes (● Psychological and Physiological…
Case Study 1 observation notes
● Psychological and Physiological effects of stress
High stress arousal
Extreme agitation (experienced by Fleance)
High alert (experienced by Fleance)
Body goes into an attempt to cope via neural and endocrine mechanisums
Autonomic nervous system
Alters the functions of some organs
Incensement of blood to specific areas around the body
Slow or increase heart rate
Parasympathetic nervous system
Calms the body down
Conservation of energy to achieve homeostasis
Declining stress symptoms but still prevent
Sympathetic nervous system
Arouses the body and functioning
Activates fight of flight
The body fluctuates between the sympathetic NS and the parasympathetic NS to achieve homeostasus
Energy levels increase
Increase blood flow
Heart rate and breathing increase
Digestion system effected
Increment of muscle strength and tension
● Autonomic and Nervous system response
Sympathetic Nervous System Response.
Action Potential is sent from brain down to Preganglionic cell (spinal chord)
Signals then flow to ganglia (individual ones for individual responses)
Nerve fibers in ganglia then secrete a neurotransmitter called Acetylcholine to postganglionic fibres
Postganglionic fibres then travel to reactor muscles and secrete norepinephrine, which all have individual responses.
Beta cells of smooth muscles expand (such as your leg, and other essential muscles) and Alpha cells of smooth muscles contract (such as the stomach, and other non-essential organs).
Parasympathetic Nervous System Response
● Neurological and hormonal basis of this response
Response starts in the amgydala of the brain
Triggers the hypothalamus which leads to the activation of the pituitary gland; secreting the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
The adrenal gland activates and releases epinephrine (adrenalin).
The release of hormones leads to the production of cortisol, which increases blood pressure, blood sugar and suppresses the immune system.
The circulation of cortisol turns fatty acids into available energy; preparing muscles throughout the body for the response.
Hormones like epinephrine helps immediate physical reactions associated with a preparation for violent muscular action such as:
Inhibition of stomach and upper intestinal action to the point where digestion stops or slows down
Dilation of Pupils
Paling or flushing
Acceleration of heart and lung action
All of these responses are the result of the body's effort to create a boost of energy for either a fight or flight response.