M4 - Lesson 1 : Implementing Storage Spaces (New in Server 2012…
M4 - Lesson 1 : Implementing Storage Spaces
What are Storage Spaces
Add physical disks of any type and size to a storage pool.
Create highly-available virtual disks from the pool
One or more physical disks
A storage pool that includes the disks
Virtual disks (or storage spaces) that are created with disks from the storage pool
Disk drives that are based on virtual drives
Components and features of Storage Spaces
Disk sector size
A storage pool’s sector size is set the moment it is created. Its default sizes are set as follows:
If the list of drives being used contains only 512 and 512e drives, the pool sector size is set to 512e. A 512 disk uses 512-byte sectors. A 512e drive is a hard disk with 4,096-byte sectors that emulates 512-byte sectors.
If the list contains at least one 4-kilobyte (KB) drive, the pool sector size is set to 4 KB.
Simple / Two-way and three-way mirrors / Parity
This is the default allocation when any drive is added to a pool. Storage Spaces can automatically select available capacity on data-store drives for both storage space creation and JIT allocation.
A manual drive is not used as part of a storage space unless it is specifically selected when you create that storage space. This drive allocation property lets administrators specify particular types of drives for use only by certain storage spaces.
These are reserve drives that are not used in the creation of a storage space, but are added to a pool. If a drive that is hosting columns of a storage space fails, one of these reserve drives is called on to replace the failed drive.
Thin provisioning space:
Thin provisioning enables storage to be allocated readily on a just-enough and JIT basis. Storage capacity in the pool is organized into provisioning slabs that are not allocated until datasets require the storage. Instead of the traditional fixed storage allocation method in which large portions of storage capacity are allocated but might remain unused, thin provisioning optimizes the use of any available storage by reclaiming storage that is no longer needed, using a process known as trim.
Fixed provisioning space:
In Storage Spaces, fixed provisioned spaces also use flexible provisioning slabs. The difference is that it allocates the storage capacity up front, at the time that you create the space. You can create both thin and fixed provisioning virtual disks within the same storage pool. For example, you can choose to use a thin provisioning space for a shared folder containing user files, and a fixed provisioning space for a database that requires high disk I/O.
You can increase the performance of a virtual disk by striping data across multiple physical disks. When creating a virtual disk, you can configure the
by using two parameters,
represents one pass of data written to a storage space, with data written in multiple stripes, or passes.
correlate to underlying physical disks across which one stripe of data for a storage space is written.
represents the amount of data written to a single column per stripe.
parameters determine the width of the stripe (e.g.,
stripe_width = NumberOfColumns * Interleave
Cluster disk requirement
Failover clustering prevents work interruptions if there is a computer failure. For a pool to support failover clustering, all drives in the pool must support SAS.
New in Server 2016
Storage Spaces Direct:
This feature enables you to build highly available storage systems by using storage nodes with only local storage. You will learn more about this feature later in this module.
This new feature in Windows Server 2016 enables replication—between servers or clusters that are in the same location or different sites—for disaster recovery. Storage Replica includes both synchronous and asynchronous replication for shorter or longer distance between sites. This enables you to achieve storage replication at a lower cost.
Storage Quality of Service (QoS):
With this feature, you can create centralized QoS policies on a Scale-Out File Server and assign them to virtual disks on Hyper-V virtual machines. QoS ensures that performance for the storage adapts to meet policies as the storage load changes
Improved Data Deduplication
Support for volume sizes up to 64 terabytes (TB)
Simplified deduplication configuration for virtualized backup applications.
Support for file sizes up to 1 TB.
Support for Nano Server.
Support for cluster rolling upgrades:
You can upgrade each node in an existing Windows Server 2012 R2 cluster to Windows Server 2016 without incurring downtime to upgrade all the nodes at once.
Server Message Block (SMB) hardening improvements:
In Windows Server 2016, client connections to the Active Directory Domain Services default SYSVOL and NETLOGON shares on domain controllers now require SMB signing and mutual authentication (e.g., Kerberos authentication).
New in Server 2012
This feature deploys multiterabyte NTFS file system volumes, which support consolidation scenarios and maximize storage use. NTFS volumes on master boot record (MBR) formatted disks can be up to 2 terabytes (TB) in size. Volumes on a globally unique identifier (GUID) partition table (GPT) formatted disks can be up to 18 exabytes.
This feature saves disk space by storing a single copy of identical data on the volume.
iSCSI Target Server:
The iSCSI Target Server provides block storage to other servers and applications on the network by using the iSCSI standard.
Storage spaces and storage pools.
Unified remote management of File and Storage Services in Server Manager.
Windows PowerShell cmdlets for File and Storage Services.
The new Resilient File System (ReFS) introduced in Windows Server 2012 offers enhanced integrity, availability, scalability, and error protection for file-based data storage.
Server Message Block (SMB) 3.0.
SMB protocol is a network file-sharing protocol that allows applications to read and write to files and request services from server programs on a network.
Offloaded Data Transfer (ODX)
. ODX functionality enables ODX-capable storage arrays to bypass the host computer and directly transfer data within or between compatible storage devices.
Storage Spaces usage scenarios
Implement and easily manage scalable, reliable, and inexpensive storage.
Aggregate individual drives into storage pools, which are managed as a single entity.
Use inexpensive storage with or without external storage.
Use different types of storage in the same pool
Grow storage pools as required.
Provision storage when required from previously created storage pools.
Storage Spaces volumes are not supported on boot or system volumes.
The contents of a drive are lost when you introduce that drive into a storage pool.
You must have at least one drive in a simple storage pool.
Fault Tolerance has specific requirements
All drives in a pool must use the same sector size.
Fibre Channel and iSCSI are not supported.