BEH STUD: Influence and prosocial behaviour (PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOUR (THEORIES…
BEH STUD: Influence and prosocial behaviour
The process in which your attitudes and behaviours may change in the presence of other people - physical or implied presence. It is a conscious choice.
AISCH EXPERIMENT: Only one participant - the rest are actors. Asked to point out identical lines. Actors all say the wrong line - participant is very likely to conform and say what they say.
INFORMATIONAL INFLUENCE: When you think that someone else has particular information about the issue that you don't have
REFERENT INFORMATIONAL INFLUENCE: Similar but involves a larger group
NORMATIVE INFLUENCE: Receiving social approval from others
: Receiving a directive. Extreme end is Nazis.
MILGRIM EXPERIMENT: Told participant to give another 'participant' (actor) a shock for a wrong answer. Shock increased each time and it was found that participants would go very very high because of obedience. Because of: diffusion of responsibility. Can't see the person. Began small and gradually increased. Weren't given time to think about what they were doing.
: Getting people to say yes to a request. Their choice - not forced.
STRATEGIES: Door-in-the-face technique - Start with big request, when they say no follow up with smaller request (which you actually want) and they may say yes. Also - saying something is added to a sale for "free" makes them more likely to say yes.
NORM OF RECIPROCITY: We feel compelled to comply when someone has helped us in the past
EXPERIMENT 1986: Cupcake for 75c each PLUS TWO FREE COOKIES! - 73% of people bought. Control condition - Cupcake and two cookies for 75c - 40% bought.
MERE PRESENCE EFFECT: The idea that just being around someone changes your performance on a target. Can improve performance = Social Facilitation. Can make it worse = Social Inhibition. Depends on how comfortable you are with the task.
DEINDIVIDUATION: When you are in a group of people personal identity and self-awareness reduces and you become more impulsive (how riots start).
STANFORD PRISON EXPERIMENT 1971: Given role of guard or prisoner randomly. Guards became more extreme and powerful. All prisoners became mindlessly obedient. Guards became "puppeteers" and it all occurred very quickly.
MINORITY GROUP INFLUENCE: some minorities are forceful, consistent, otherwise similar to majority, make logical arguments, are in line with current social trends or have no great personal relevance to the majority.
EXPERIMENT: Same AISCH line task. 4 participants and 2 actors. 1/3 of participants made errors.
SOCIAL COGNITIVE APPROACH: In an emergency - unusual, unforeseen, ambiguous, requires instant response.
LATANE AND DARLEY'S COGNITIVE MODEL 1970:1. Attend to what is happening. 2. Define as an emergency. 3. Assume responsibility. 4. Decide what can be done. 6. GIVE HELP.
COGNITIVE-PHYSIOLOGICAL APPROACH: Arousal. Label. Evaluate costs.
PERCEIVER-CENTRED DETERMINANTS: Personality. Competence. Mood.
NEGATIVE-STATE RELIEF MODEL: Innate drive to make ourselves feel better when we're in a bad mood. Helping others can increase your mood. Creates question - does altruism exist?
EMPATHY-ALTRUISM HYPOTHESIS (BATSON 1991)
Others' distress -> personal distress -> egotistic motivation to reduce distress -> help others to reduce own stress.
Others' distress -> empathetic concern -> Altruistic motivation to reduce others' stress-> Help others to reduce their distress.
RECIPIENT-CENTRED DETERMINANTS: Empathy. Attractiveness. More likely to help if they were not responsible for their own misfortune (eg. natural disaster)
SOCIAL LEARNING APPROACH: It is something that we learn. Rewarded/reinforced for doing good things for others. Modelling - watching others. Based on social norms.
EVOLUTIONARY THEORY: "We're born with it" survival benefit. Preference for blood relatives. Seen in animals.
THE BYSTANDER EFFECT: The diffusion of responsibility when more people are present.
: acts that intentionally benefit someone else.
ALTRUISM: Help given without any expectation of personal gain
Acts that are positively valued by society.