BEH STUD: Physical appearance
BEH STUD: Physical appearance
BODY IMAGE DISSATISFACTION
: People can be dissatisfied if their body does not match socially acceptable image. Weight, shape, size and skin colour.
BODY IMAGE: "A person's perceptions, thoughts and feelings about their body"
DISSATISFACTION: Body weight, shape, size, colour etc.
DISMORPHIA: Believing you're ugly, awful, a "monster". 45x more likely to commit suicide. Difficult to diagnose. Comorbidity of eating disorders and schizophrenia. Excessive tanning, anxiety and depression.
SKIN BLEACHING: Popular for many people with dark skin tones. Can cause - chemical burns, hyper pigmentation, uneven skin tone and scarring.
SPRAY TANNING: False sense of sun protection. May contain untested products. May trigger asthma. Skin allergies.
HEALTH EFFECTS OF UV RADIATION: Cancer (melanoma). 4th most commonly diagnosed cancer in Australia. Suppresses immune system which increases risk of getting other cancers.
WEIGHT LOSS PRACTICES: Dieting, binge eating, purging, extreme exercise, weight loss surgeries
EATING DISORDERS: Anorexia, Bulimia, Binge eating.
ANOREXIA: <85% of ideal body weight. Heart failure, fertility problems, osteoporosis.
BULIMIA: severe preoccupation with body weight and shape. Binge eating then self-induced vomiting. Most common in women ages 20-30. Often appear normal but lack of self-esteem and confidence.
FATTENING/FORCE FEEDING: Certain cultures to increase marriage prospects. Could be sent to fattening farms as young as 6 years old. Physical punishment for not eating/swallowing.
OTHER BODY MODIFICATIONS: Cosmetic surgery. Body building. Piercings. Shaving/waxing. Laser hair removal. Hair dying. Nail polish. Botox injections.
Why do people feel dissatisfied? - Media (eg. magazines)
FACTORS SHAPING BODY IMAGE
: 34-65% of 197 girls aged 5 had ideas about dieting. Teens are most likely to develop eating disorders. 20-24 y.o. concerned about image. Middle age - most likely to tan. Older people - more likely to get facial/cosmetic surgery. Girls' toys - barbie dolls. Disney princesses etc.
: More women are concerned with body image and have eating disorders. Men are becoming more concerned with body image. Women intentionally tan for appearance while most men unintentionally tan while working/playing sports.
: Low self-esteem. Media. Social Comparisons Theory: Upward comparison = compare with 'better' people. Downward comparison = compare with others 'worse off'.
TRIPARTE INFLUENCE MODEL
: Proposes that 3 formative influences affect body image and eating problems through two mediational mechanisms - Internalisation of the thin-ideal and appearance comparison ideals. (Keery et al. 2004)
: Maternal feeding practices. Pressure to eat, maternal concern about wait. Parental comment (particularly fathers')
: Peer groups (eg. group purging among private school girls). Peer practices. Negative comments. Teasing/bullying.
PEER PRESSURE AND BODY IMAGE STUDY: 80 students from same-sex school and 76 female students from mixed school. 35 friendship groups. Completed questionnaire assessing body image, social comparison, media influence and pressure etc. Found that peer groups are an important influence on body image concerns.
: Print media. Broadcast media. Internet. Social media.
GERBNER'S CULTIVATION THEORY: TV viewers are classified according to frequency of media exposure. Social media - no. of likes, dislikes, followers.
SOCIAL MEDIA AND BODY IMAGE STUDY: Facebook photo activity associated with body image disturbance in US teen girls. Found that elevated appearance exposure was significantly correlated with weight dissatisfaction, thin ideal internalisation etc.
SCREEN TIME: Associated with depressive symptoms among obese teens.
MEDIA: Women control over 80% of all household spending. Earning more, spending more. Yet few marketers know what women want. Shemarketing Maximisation Model is a 10 step approach to attracting and retaining a loyal customer base.
HEALTH PROMOTION MESSAGES: "Fatness becomes a matter of life or death". BMI is used as an indicator of changes but is not super accurate. "It is not the fat body that is an issue, but the cultural production of fatphobia" Cooper 2010.
BEAUTY: "A combination of qualities such as shape, colour or form that pleases the aesthetic senses, especially sight."
BENEFITS OF BEING BEAUTIFUL: more occupational success, more dating experiences, better physical health, more extraverted, higher self-confidence, better social skills
VARIATIONS OF BEAUTY IDEALS OVER TIME: Old paintings show curves as beautiful. Now fashion industry only hires size 0 models. Promoting anorexia. In other cultures: neck rings, crushing feet to look smaller etc.
BODY IMAGE CONSTRUCTION MODELS
THEORY OF UNCONSCIOUS BODY IMAGE: Francois Dolto. Body image comprises of a living synthesis off people's emotional experiences.
SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY: Albert Bandura. People learn from others. Eg. Celebrity culture - Kardashians.
GENETIC PREDISPOSITION: Anorexia runs in families.
HORMONAL DISPOSITION: Early development