BEH STUD: Social cues and behaviour
BEH STUD: Social cues and behaviour
A treatment that has no known plausible benefit for the condition being treated. The effect - getting an effect from something that is known to have no plausible benefit. Eg. a change in a patient's symptoms due to the administration of a "symbolic" treatment
Used for testing of antidepressants, arthroscopic surgery, acupuncture, pain medications etc.
For antidepressants, both real and placebo medications show significant improvements in severely depressed people. Approx. 30-80% of what actual drugs achieve.
New surgery techniques need sham surgery as a "control".
Neuropathic (general pain, typically chronic) drug trials: Placebo effect achieves approx. 50% of drug.
: Expectations. Reduced anxiety. Social learning and conditioning. Brain changes, physiological responses etc.
MUCH HIGHER IN AMERICA: TV medical marketing is allowed. More money is spent overall on drug trials.
HOW TO REDUCE PLACEBO EFFECT: Tell the patient there is a good chance the drug will not work - lower expectations.
: Negative side effects listed on the bottle which patients report experiencing when taking the placebo medication.
SITUATED COGNITION, EMBODIED COGNITION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CUES
SITUATED COGNITION THEORY
: Newish theoretical approach to understanding human thought and behaviour
Thought, knowledge and behaviour are influenced by our social, physical and cultural settings.
Repeated historical exposure to these settings influences thought and behaviour.
In-situational contexts can prime often unconscious thoughts and behaviours accumulated from these settings.
Unconscious cues in the environment can influence people to display particular behaviour because of embodied or situational cognitions. Useful when we want to influence people to a certain line of thinking eg. advertising, health promotion etc.
HOW SUBTLE CUES AFFECT THE WAY WE THINK: Facial/physical cues (pen in lips or teeth study). Cues from other people (do pheromones exist in humans?). Ambient cues (citrus scent activates "cleaning thoughts").
: Beliefs about a particular target or identity that is generalised to the whole target group. They function as shortcuts for quickly making sense of the world. But also lead us to make incorrect assumptions about individuals because of their perceived group membership.
Problems occur when stereotypes are accepted and become ingrained in society. Also stereotypes can lead to a self-fulfilling prophecy in group members through internalisation of the stereotype.
: Based on the belief of biological inferiority of certain races (eg. black people). Stereotypes include laziness, low intelligence etc. Open hatred and feelings of superiority shown by racist.
: Reject old-fashioned racism. Still perceive certain target groups to be inferior and believe they violate traditional white values. Avoid blatant verbalised derogation. Don't consider themselves to be racist. Disguise their subtle negative feelings in order to prevent dissonance from their conflict between their prejudice and their egalitarian values.
5 THEMES: 1. Racial discrimination no longer exists. 2. Any remaining differences in groups' economic outcomes results from lack of motivation to work hard enough. 3. Because they don't work hard enough, their anger over inequality is unjustified. 4. Believe that they seek special favours instead of working hard. 5. Believe they are getting more than they deserve economically.
PSYCHOLOGICAL BASIS: 1. Mild to moderate ant-target beliefs. 2. Belief in traditional values eg. hard work. 3. Low outcome-based egalitarianism - endorse equality of opportunity. 4. Group self-interest - promote their group and respond negatively to perceived threats. 5. Little personal knowledge of target group