Health promotion priniciples (Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion (Build…
Health promotion priniciples
Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion
Build Healthy Public Policy:legislation, fiscal measures, taxation and organisational change
Create supportive environments: in recognition of the link between people and their environment. E.g. non-smoking areas
Strengthen community action: empowerment of communities, their ownership and control of their own endeavours and destinies.
Develop personal skills: providing information, education for health and enhancing life skills.
Reorient health services to focus on the holistic health needs of a population
Geoffrey Rose's prevention paradox
A prevention measure which brings much benefit to the population offers little benefit to each participating individual
The majority of cases of a disease come from a population at low or moderate risk of that disease, and only a minority of cases come from the high risk population...because there are less people at high risk than of low/mod risk.
Proportionate universalism: "resourcing and delivering of universal services at a scale and intensity proportionate to the degree of need"
Michael Marmot's report "Fair Society Healthy Lives" 2010
Framework for action on the SDOH
Give every child the best start in life
Create Fair employment and good work for all
Create and develop healthy and sustainable places and communities
Enable all children, young people and adults to maximise their capabilities and control their lives
Ensure healthy standard of living for all
Strengthen the role and impact of ill health prevention
WHO Commission on the SDOH (2008)
Dahlgren and Whitehead determinants of health: the main influences on health across a lifecourse are not health-service based.
Individual constitutional factors
Individual lifestyle factors
Socieconomic, cultural and environmental conditions
Education, income, employment (un and under), living and working conditions, water and sanitation, health care services, housing, agricultural and food production
Social and community networks
Models of behaviour change
Transtheoretical model of change
Pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance (relapse prevention)
Health Belief Model
Perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, self-efficacy and cues to action
Health Promotion: the process of enabling individuals to increase control over and improve their health