3B) Workforce Diversity (Layers of diversity (Gardenswartz & Rowe) (-…
3B) Workforce Diversity
Types of disability
Culture Race Religion Ethnicity Language Economic Disability Gender Age Educational Levels Sexual Orientation Nationality Functionality Lifestyle
Heigrel two main categories of diversity:
Heigrel two main categories of diversity:
mix characteristics of the people who make up an organizations workforce"
mix of cultures and sub cultures to which members of the work force belong"
Demographic and Cultural are presented as :
Demographic and culture would be limited
Would have good degree of culture & Demographic diversity but with little integration among demographic groupings of staff and subcultures within the organisation
high degree of cultural & demographical diversity with high level of integration amongst cultures.
Layers of diversity (Gardenswartz & Rowe)
- Layer 1: Personality
"Set of characteristics responsible for a person identity" - similarities & differences in personality.
Layer 2: Internal Dimension
Include Age, Race, Gender, Sexual Orientation, Ethinicity & Physical ability". Also known as Primary dimension because they are hard or impossible to change. Internal Dimensions influence our assumptions, expectations and attitudes.
Layer 3: External Dimension:
Geographic, income, personal habits, recreational activities, religion, background, work experience, appearance, parent & marital status. Also known as secondary dimensions of diversity as they are, to a large degree, under our control
Layer 4: Organizational Dimension
Organisation specific factors such as seniority, job title, functional level, management status, union affiliation and work field.
Barriers to, Challenges, Benefits, of Implementing Diversity in the workplace
::one group believes they are superior to other groups.
- Where staff members prejudge others on first impressions.
Stereotypes Positive and negative assessment of perceived attributes of people or situations
(can be overt or covert)
Lower group cohesiveness:
. Homogeneous groups are significantly more cohesive than diverse groups
Stereotyping, Failure to read and understand culturally specific nuances underpinning the messages and the way its conveyed
Mistrust & Tension
, Reduce Absenteeism through, example, lactation program & Avoid fines by EEA
Improved Employee Attitudes
Reputation for Social Responsibility
. Organisations that are diverse are perceived to be effectively engaged in social responsibility
Increase sales and market share
Firms diversity must mimic that of its consumers culture diversity.
Increased creativity and innovation
- The multiplicity of experience and perspectives which a diverse workforce brings, enhances creativity and innovation within the firm.
"Innovative companies deliberately used heterogeneous teams to solve problems.
Increased group Problem solving and productivity
Heterogeneous groups produce better quality decision and demonstrated higher productivity than homogeneous groups
- Enhanced Labour
Diverse employees require managers that apply a range of skills and techniques which in turn enhances the flexibility of the organisation
Reasons to increase workforce diversity
Legislation Bill of Rights of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa (Act No.108 of 1996)
S EEA No 55, 1998. Labour relations act No 66, 1995. Basic condition employment act No 75, 1997*
Changing Workforce demographics
The EEA requires firms put in place EE which helps them acheive representitivity in all levels of the workplace.
Diverse firms are more innovative and are more responsive to the needs of consumers. Helps secure government contracts.
Rapid Growth in International Business
foreign workers to introduce new skills within the company
Concepts that Underpin Employment Practices & Diversity
Equality of creation
- We are all created equal".
Equality of Opportunity
- Providing equal access to opportunities for all.
Equality of Treatment
- Not always desirable - increase of salaries for under-performing workers vs performing workers
Equality of results -
Not always desirable - passing of results of school children even if not competent.
Affirmitive Action requires employers implement AA measures in order to facilitate the transformation of the workforce.
Applicable to suitably qualified people from the designated groups
Afford Equal opportunity in the work space to suitably qualified people from designated groups
Should be equally represented in all categories and levels
AA does not prevent employment of non designated groups (white male)
When implementing AA, emplyers must:
Consult with employees regarding implementation of EE. A representative committee must be formed to consult on the implementation of AA.
Conduct analysis of the workspace to identify any barriers to employment for people in designated groups
Prepare a EE plan and submit to Dept of Labour
Report to Dept of Labour on progress of EE Plan
Accommodating work and family needs
Alternative work arrangments
Identifying and building on shared values
Acknowledging cultural conflicts and differences
Appreciating the uniqueness of each person and culture
Ann Morrison: Practices for successful diversity Practices
Top managements commitmentin managing diversity
Include Diversity as a key performance area (KPA)
Implementing work and family policies and procedures
Conducting policies against sexism and racism
Conducting organizational culture surveys
Diversity training programs
Job rotation .
Both Formal and informal mentoring programmes
Internal training, such as language training
Carefully selected the recruitment agencies
Partnerships with Educational institutions
Internships provide qualified / near qualified learners
Establish the firm as an "employer of choice"
Thomas & Ely’s Paradigms for Managing Diversity
differentiation” which involves placing “different people where their demographic characteristics match those of important constituents and markets”
The link between diversity and business growth is clear, and therefore this paradigm is easy to understand, accept and support by all in the company.
motivation for enhancing diversity of the workforce usually emerges from an immediate or crisis oriented need to increase market share.
Diverse employees often feel exploited and devalued.
- Access-and-Legitimacy Paradigm
The focus is usually on meeting the requirements of the law, fair treatment, equal opportunity and recruitment.
of this approach are: Increases representivity in the organisation as the workforce becomes more diverse, Promotes fair treatment
: Approach is “colour-blind” and “gender-blind” in that it is assumed that “we are all the same” or “we aspire to be all the same.”
Workforce diversity does not influence the organisation’s work or culture
Like the fairness paradigm it promotes equal opportunity for all individuals. And like the access paradigm, it acknowledges cultural differences among people and recognises the value in those differences
The key benefit of this approach is that companies are achieving diversity’s true benefits