Early Modern Ages in Spain (Culture and Art (The Spanish Renaissance had…
Early Modern Ages in Spain
Isabel de Castilla and Fernando de Aragón
Iberian Peninsula ruled by common policy
Castille and Aragón independent
Union of Castilla and Aragón
Enrique IV was the brother of Isabel. had a daughter
called Juana la Beltraneja, but he died.
Although she proclaimed herself Queen of Castilla in 1474,
it was not until 1479 that Isabel was finally accepted as Queen
Fernando was the son of the King of Aragón and he married
Isabel in 1469
● Nobility and clergy lost power
● Importance of the role of the corregidor
● Santa Hermandad: to keep order
● Permanent army
● Religious unification
● Alliances with other European kingdoms
● Conquests in the north of Africa
● War against France
expansion throughout the Mediterranean
Led to the DISCOVERY OF AMERICA
Juana The Mad
Death of Isabel in 1504
Juana as the legal successor to the
Declared incapable of ruling Fernando took over until his
death (1516) Carlos I was proclaimed king of Spain.
Crowns of Castile and
(Hapsburgs): the title of
Holy Roman Emperor
Born in Ghent (Belgium) in 1500
●King in 1516
●Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire in 1519
● Germanía Revolt (1519-1523)
● Rebellion of the comuneros
● 1520: first rebellion in
● Agreement King & Nobles →
● War with France
● Conflicts with the Ottoman Empire
● Fight with the German princes
● The Peace of Augsburg gave the
German princes the right to
choose their religion
1556: inherited his father's possessions on the peninsula many
territories in the rest of Europe and North of Africa as well as land in
Central and South America.
1580: recognised as King of Portugal, when the Portuguese
king died without a heir Portugal was unified to theSpanish Crown,
● Established the capital in Madrid.
● Stronger administration: secretaries, councils and juntas.
● Conflicts with the moriscos: prohibition to use their
language and keeping their customs.
● Rebellion in the Alpujarras (Granada, 1568)
● France: Battle of San Quintín (1557)→ Spain's predominance in Italy
● Defeated the Turks at the Battle of Lepanto (Greece) in 1571 thanks to
an alliance with Venice and the Pope → control of the Mediterranean.
● Rebellion in the Netherlands + war: independence from the Spanish Crown.
● War with England → Invincible Armada defeated in 1588.
● Support to Catholics in France vs. Calvinists.
Income from taxes
● Gold and silver from
● BUT cost of administration
and army grew all the time
Crisis in craftwork
Crisis of the Spain monarchy
17th century, last monarchs of
the Habsburg dynasty
During their reigns, Spain's
influence abroad declined
● Valido: person who had the
king's trust and grea t
influence over the king's
● Moriscos accused of
being false converts →
expelled from Spain
– Affected agriculture
● Duke of Lerma, Felipe
III's valido, made peace
with France, England the Netherlands.
Carlos II (1655-1700)
● Various validos → reforms
that contributed to the
economic recovery of
● War against France
● Portugal gain
independence in 1668.
Carlos II died with no heirs.
Felipe V, first king from the
Culture and Art
In the second third of the
century, buildings were
constructed in a Classicist or
the architectural characteristics
of the Italian Renaissance
With the adoption of the style
of Mannerism, the faces
became more expressive
The main works done in this
style were of religious
During the Catholic Monarchs' reign, new
humanist and Renaissance ideas spread
The Spanish Renaissance had the following
The increase in the importance of the
The founding of new universities
The Gothic artistic style
In the first third of the century, the
Plateresque style dominated
● Domestic policy
● Government in hands of Count-Duke of Olivares
tried to make sure that all kingdoms contributed
money to the crown rebellions in Catalonia and
Portugal in 1640.
● Conflict with Netherlands: Thirty years war, to support the Hapsburg. After the Peace of Westphalia, fight with France → 1659,Peace of the Pyrenees.