Conservative - Slide or grind past each other
Destructive - two plates slide toward each other to form either a subduction zone (one plate moving underneath the other) or a continental collision
Constructive - Two Plates Slide apart from each other
Rocks can be weathered, for example, by ice formation in rock cavities which breaks the rock apart, and changes in temperature causing the rocks to expand and contract which fractures it.
Process by which rocks are chemically altered or physically broken into fragments and involves little or no transportation
of the fragments
Human activity can lead to erosion, for example, the removal of vegetation
Trees bind soil with their roots, slowing erosion, but their roots can also assist to break up rocks. The decay of once-living things (organic matter) can cause water to become more acidic, inducing chemical weathering of rocks. Rainfall and wind corridors are in turn influenced by the landscape.
By clearing plants away and leaving soil bare after harvest, farmers can leave soils vulnerable to erosion. The top layer of the soil is the most susceptible to being blown away. This is also
the richest source of nutrients for crops that farmers grow.
Clearing of Mangroves causes rivers and oceans to damage banks contributing to erosion
constructions such as fences or dams affect erosion rates.
Creation of new islands
Volcanic Rock occurs when the molten minerals change from
liquid to solid and form igneous rocks
solidification of the minerals found in magma
Earth’s surface from the accumulation and consolidation of sediment
most common type covering approximately 75% of the surface of
sandstone, siltstone, shale, limestone, chalk, gypsum
formation involves weathering of pre-existing rock, transportation of the material away from the original site (erosion) and depositing the eroded material in the sea or in some other sedimentary environment.
typically occur in layers or strata
that cover large parts of the continents
Eg. Grand Canyon - sedimentary rock strata
formed from sediments that have been
compacted and cemented to form solid rock bodies
pre-existing rocks within the Earth’s crust by changes in temperature, pressure and by chemical action
formed from rocks that have been altered by heat, pressure and
chemical action to such an extent that the diagnostic features of the original rocks are modified or obliterated
examples of metamorphic rocks include slate, quartzite and marble
made up of a variety of minerals put together in different ways resulting in different colours and textures
mountains, cliffs, headlands, beaches, dunes,
canyons, valleys, roads, vegetation, buildings
Pale soils need plenty of organic
material and mulching to become fertile
Black or dark brown soil is generally fertile
soil for growing plants
Plain brown or yellow soil often indicates that the level of nutrients and organic matter is low and the fertility of this soil is low
The red colour is due to the oxidising of iron compounds (‘rusting’) in the soil. Red soil usually indicates extensive weathering and good drainage, but often it needs nutrients and organic matter to be fertile
Patterns in landscapes that result from
erosion over time