Ecology of the family
family: a social group characterized by common residence, economic cooperation, & reproduction
US Bureau of Census
family: 2 or more persons related by birth, marriage or adoption who reside together
domestic partnerships, reciprocal partnerships, civil unions
nuclear family: husband, wife, & their children
husband & wife: companionship
children: affection & socialization
family of orientation: family into which one was born
family of procreation: family that develops when one marries & has children
extended family: relatives of the nuclear family who are economically & emotionally dependent on each other
matriarchal: emphasize the mother's side of the family as having formal authority & dominance
patriarchal: emphasize the father's side of the family as having formal authority & dominance
egalitarian: both sides of family as equal
3-5 Macrosystem influences on Families & children: socioeconomic status
socioeconomic status: rank/position w/in a society, based on social & economic factors
ascribed status: social class, rank/position determined by family lineage, gender, birth order, skin color
achieved status: social class, rank/position determined by education, occupation, income, and/or place of residence
traditional society: relies on customs handed down from past generations as way to behave (ascribed)
modern society: looks to the present for ways to behave & is thus responsive to change (achieved)
William Goode: the family, not just the individual, that is ranked in society's class structure
operational definition: contains terms that are identifiable & can be researched
social selection perspective: individual characteristics of parents, based on genes, personality dispositions, & physical traits, will predict their degree of achievement in terms of educational attainment, occupational status, and income
social causation perspective: social class affects the socialization strategies pf parents and, consequently, impacts the development of children
family stress model: economic difficulties have an adverse effect on parents' emotions, behaviors, & relationships, which in turn (-) influence their socialization strategies
extended investment model: focuses on the ways in which the resources possessed by families of higher socioeconomic statuses increase the tendency & ability of of parents to promote the well-being & abilities of their children
3-2 Basic functions
smaller family size
assignment of social roles
Civil Rights Act 1964
ends racial & gender discrimination
3-4 Diverse Parents
3-6 Ethnic Orientation
gemeinschaft (corresponds to low context): interpersonal relationships ( cooperative, close, informal), authority patterns (autocratic, personal opinions & beliefs are private)
gesellschaft (corresponds to high context): interpersonal relationships (practical, objective, formal), authority patterns (democratic, political control, fairness, equal rights)
norms: rules, patterns, or standards that express cultural values & reflect how individuals are supposed to behave
How do humans relate to each other?
What is the significant time dimension?
What is the valued personality type?
What is the relationship of humans to nature?
What are the innate predispositions of humans?
3-11 family empowerment
crowding, traffic, noise, bureaucracies, and crime
personal reactions to real or imagined threats and reactions to real or imagined pressure to achieve
disease, overexertion, allergies, and abuse
3-7 Religious Orientations
religion: unified system of beliefs & practices relative to sacred things, uniting into a single moral community all those who adhere to those beliefs & practices
influences patterns of gender roles, sexual behavior, marriage, divorce, birthrates, morals attitudes & child rearing
dress, dietary habits, alcohol consumption, health care, & social interactions
Protestant ethic: religiously derived value system that defines the ideal person as individualistic, thrifty, self-sacrificing, efficient in use of time, strong in personal responsibility, & committed to productivity
Religions provide: divine ideology, coping mechanisms, concept of death, establishment of identity
improvement in living standard
increases busyness, multitasking, distraction
3-3 Family Transitions
64% live w/ married parents
24% live w/mothers
4%w/ unmarried parents
legal: divides decision-making authority
physical: where the child spends time
parents use child to communicate
binuclear family: children are apart of 2 homes & 2 family groups
What defines a family?
99.8% say "husband, wife, & kids"
92% "husband, wife, no kids"
39.6% "couple living together"
83% "couple living together w/kids"
33% "gay couple"
64% "gay couple w/kids"
51% "pets are part of family"
The Blessing of Work
Don't study counterfeit, study real
heaven & earth took work to create
“Work is always a spiritual necessity even if, for some, work is not an economic necessity”
not an imposition; it was an opportunity
choose your work & love it
power of shared participation
available in every home, no matter how troubled
Fiddler on the roof
we may not know how the tradition starts
we know who we are & what God expects us to do