Rebellions - Causes (Social + Economic Grievances. (Main causes of…
Rebellions - Causes
Important part of everyday life.
Religious changes resented by many.
Main cause of Pilgrimage of Grace 1536.
Protested closure of Monasteries.
Provided a lot of charity in North.
Dissolution was a shock to local communities.
Afraid of change - scared parish churches would be next.
Factor in Kett's Rebellion 1549
Objection that Protestant changes weren't fast enough.
Not enough ministers preaching Protestant beliefs.
Complaints about clergy.
Western Rebellion was in direct response to religious reforms of Edward in 1549.
Wyatt's rebellion 1554 -wanted to restore Edward's religious settlement.
Cause of Revolt of Northern Earls 1569
2 leaders were RC - some wanted old religion back.
Wanted revenge on Protestant clergy who had prevented RC worship.
Pilgrimage of Grace 1536
Grievance that HVIII was listening to base-born councillors.
E.g. Cromwell - who ordered survey into state of monasteries.
Main cause of Wyatt's rebellion 1554
Objections to marriage of Mary to Philip II of Spain.
Fear that any son would be raised in Spain + England would become Spanish colony.
Courtenay put forward as alternative English + Protestant suitor.
Mary set on Philip.
Also concerned about diminishing power at Court.
Majority of causes of Revolt of Northern Earls 1569
Objection to growth of Nation State - reduced semi-independence of North.
Great Northern families had seen influence decrease.
Aim was to shake of power of govt over North.
Some nobles hostile to Cecil - didn't like his politics + were jealous.
Wanted MQS on throne.
Believed she was true monarch (RC + Tudor blood).
Did not accept HVIII's divorce.
Believed Liz was illegitimate.
Wyatt's rebellion - afraid would not get positions of power in Mary's RC reign - were Protestants.
Personal grievances with monarch tended to get very little support.
Social + Economic Grievances.
When people are happy + content - less likely to rebel.
When money is scarce - social unrest.
Economic conditions fairly poor during Tudor period.
Closure of monasteries cut support + charity.
Economic causes for Pilgrimage of Grace.
Objections to peace time taxation enforced by lay subsidy of 1534. (10% of person's income + field enclosure).
Caused unemployment + rises in rent.
Main causes of Kett's Rebellion 1549
Objection to enclosure + disbandment of 3 field system.
Left many unemployed.
Average person could not afford rent on farms - rack renting common.
Landlords broke the law + enclosed common land (caused mistrust of middle class gentry).
Norwich: 6% of people owned 60% of wealth - disparity fuelled class hatred - important cause.
Western Rebellion 1549
People unhappy with taxes levied on sheep + cotton.
People didn't support Wyatt's rebellion 1554 - generally content with prices + living standards.