The Russian revolution
The Russian revolution
Causes of the revolution
The Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905)
for control of Manchuria.
New taxes were imposed
in order to pay for the conflict.
Soldiers were continually .
The appearance of political parties
were created which opposed the tsar.
The 1905 Revolution:
industrial workers in St Petersburg
moved peacefully on the Winter Palace
for improvements in working conditions
and political reform
they were brutally suppressed
protest became known as Bloody Sunday'.
People responded with strikes and protests.
The Social Democratic Workers' Party
(the Mensheviks and the Bolsheviks)
met in secret and soviets were formed
Tsar Nicholas II agreed to make some political reforms
and authorised the formation of a Duma
The Duma had the power to make laws
the Duma was dissolved
autocracy was re-established.
Participation in the First World War:
Russian army didn't have enough food or weapons,
15 million soldier were mobilised,
Before the revolution
power and authority
Civil rights were not recognised
and political parties were
economy was semi-feudal:
wealthy minority and
worked by a peasant majority.
the population were peasants
hard working conditions
The 1917 revolutions
took place in two phases
The February Revolution: the provisional government
They protested about
the shortage of food
disasters of the war
Successful revolution of workers supported
by soldiers and peasants
Tsar Nicholas II was forced to abdicate
a provisional government was formed
made up of liberals and Menshevik socialists
led by the socialist Alexander Kerensky.
The new government:
universal male suffrage
legalised political parties
elections for the end of the year
proclaimed Russia a republic
provisional government failed
they did not keep their promise to
redistribute land among the peasants
they did not withdraw from the war.
demanded the immediate withdrawal of Russia from the war.
The October Revolution: the Bolshevik government
Bolsheviks, organised into soviets and led by Lenin and Trotsky
attacked the Winter Palace, the seat of the Provisional Government.
proletarian government, called the Council of People's Commissars
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Russia to withdraw from the war
Russia agreed to give territory to Germany.
give the control of industries to the workers'
to coordinate all the communist parties around the world.
In January 1918
between the counterrevolutionaries
The White Army forces were supported by the Allied powers
who wanted Russia to re-open the Eastern Front
The creation of the USSR
put into practice Marxist ideas
political power was held by the soviets
power to make laws and to choose the people who held executive power
Soviet Union was the only political party
the interests of the workers.