Groups and Change (Sources of Change in Groups (Social Learning (vicarious…
Groups and Change
Sources of Change in Groups
Disclosure & Catharsis
Self -Disclosure: Revealing personal information to others
Chatarsis: Releasing pent-up emotions
Cohesion & Support : Comfort, confirmation of feelings; acceptance
Increased sense of efficacy from helping others
vicarious Learning: Developing social skills by watching others
Interpersonal Learning : Developing social skills by interacting with others
Guidance: Offering and accepting advice and suggestions to and from the group
Gaining a deeper understanding of oneself
Universality & Hope
Hope : Increased sense of optimism from seeing others improve
Universality : Recognition of shared problems, reduced sense of uniqueness
The Effectiveness of Groups
Evidence of Negative Effects
Casualty: An individual whose psychological well-being declines rather than improves as a result of his or her experiences in a change-promoting group.
Premature Termination: The withdrawal of a participant from a change-promoting group that occurs before the individual has reached his or her therapeutic goals.
Types of Groups and Effectiveness
diversity of purposes and procedures, one might expect some types of groups to emerge as more effective than others
Perceptions VS Behaviors
groups are most useful in promoting changes in the “ability to manage feelings, directionality of motivation, attitudes towards the self, attitudes to- wards others, and interdependence,” but that behavior is more resistant to change
The Value of Groups
groups provide social support BUT they are also a source of considerable stress for their members.
Group Approaches to Change
therapist helps members to gain insight into their problems by offering interpretations and working through transference effects.
Gestalt group therapy,
use of experiments, techniques, and extensive role-playing methods to stimulate emotional growth.
uses role play and physical activities.
interpersonal group psychotherapy
the leader takes advantage of the group’s dynamics to help members learn about how they influence others and how others influence them.
cognitive–behavioral therapy groups
the therapist uses principles derived from learning theory to encourage specific behaviors while extinguishing others.
Interpersonal Learning Groups
training groups/ T-groups
members are encouraged to actively confront and resolve interpersonal issues through unstructured discussions.
sensitivity training groups / encounter groups
individuals are urged to disclose personal aspects of themselves to others and to provide other members with positive feedback.
structured learning groups
members take part in planned exercises that focus on a specific interpersonal problem or skill
people combine their energies and efforts in an attempt to cope with or overcome a common problem