WHY DID THE CRM GROW AFTER 1945? (HIGH PROFILE CASES OF DISCRIMINATION (KU…
WHY DID THE CRM GROW AFTER 1945?
HIGH PROFILE CASES OF DISCRIMINATION
Overall, this factor was important as it gained significant media attention which would prove vital to the campaign and highlighted the continuing discrimination and prejudice that black Americans faced, together, these cases were particularly influential in the growth of the CRM.
However this was not as significant the formation of effective protest groups as they made positive impacts such as ending segregation public facilities and successfully established a set of tactics which would prove vital to the movement.
On the 28th August 1955, Emmet Till a 14 year old boy visiting his cousins in Money Mississippi was murdered for allegedly flirting with a White women.
This was significant as this highlighted how racist the justice system in America was after the two men charged with the murder were decided to be innocent after previously admitting the murder.
Furthermore this factor also gained mass publicity for the movement; Till had often been viewed as the 'sacrificial lamb' of the CRM, showing the significance his death had on the growth of the movement.
In 1957, 9 black American Teenagers tried to attend Little Rock High school in Little Rock Arkansas when they were met by an angry mob of white Americans trying to intimate and stop the students from entering and attending the school.
This was significant as it sparked sympathy and media atttntion for black Americans and showed the presendential support after Eisenhower intervened and hired bodyguards for the teens trying to attend; highlighting the positive changes the US government were trying to make towards civil rights.
However the impact of this factor was limited as segregation in schools was still alive and education was still inherently unequal even after schools were declared integrated by the Topeka board of Education in 1954, stopping the civil rights movement from growing.
EMERGENCE OF EFFECTIVE BLACK LEADERS
Martin Luther King used non-violent protesting tactics to gain media attention and support for the Civil Rights such as Speeches, Peaceful Protests and marches.
These tactics highlighted how racist white Americans were as when white Americans attacked black Americans during protests, it showed black Americans behaving in a civilised manner compared to white Americans behaving bad looking like animals.
Furthermore, this factor also meant that MLK's peaceful protesting methods sparked media attention and sympathy all over the world for black Americans, which helped to grow the support and further the civil rights movement.
Malcolm X and Stokely Carmichael took a different, more violent approach to gaining Civil rights, ignoring and completely disregarding MLK's more peaceful methods.
This was significant as Carmichael and Malcom X attracted a younger and more eager type of black American, particularly those living in the north who didn't agree with MLK's "mild" way of protesting, gaining more support for the Civil rights movement.
However the impact of this was limited as Malcom X was never involved in any protests before his death and therefore it could be said that he did not achieve or contribute anything to the campaign.
Overall this was a significant factor in the growing demand for civil rights as effective leader like MLK and Malcom X gained media attention and followers for the movement, providing a platform for civil rights to grow.
However this was not as significant as experience of black soldiers during WW2, as many historians have argued that if King had never lived, the CRM would have still followed the same path, showing his impact on the movement was limited and has been exaggerated by the media attention he received (particular so after his assassination). Furthermore historians agree that WW2 planted seeds that grew into the civil rights movement therefore without the war the movement may not have succeed as it did.
EXPERIENCE OF BLACK SOLDIERS DURING WW2
Overall this was the most significant factor in the growing demand for Civil rights as the experience WW2 had on black soldiers provided the building blocks for the other 3 factors to exist and develop. The emergence of effective black leaders and the effective protest groups may not have existed or had the same amount of drive as they did.
Furthermore the experience of black soldiers during WW2 started the mass movement for civil rights and is most recognisably the most significant factor.
During the war the US army remained segregated with 1,154,720 black soldiers conscripted into the army.
This was significant as it showed the irony and how hypocritical the US was as they were fighting against the racist policies if Hitler with its own 'Jim Crown Army'.
The executive order 8802 was passed meaning there could no longer be any discrimination in the employment of workers in the defence industries.
This was significant as over half a million soldiers were stationed in Britain during WW2, white southerners and black Americans were shocked to find that black people were not segregated from public facilities, highlighting that Britain lacked the racist attitudes that were so strong in the US and gave hope to black Americans who now saw an integrated future possible
Furthermore the experience of black soldiers who were treated as equals in Britain was crucial to inspiring change, as one put it 'After the war, we just kept on fighting'.
FORMATION OF EFFECTIVE PROTEST GROUPS
During the year of December 1955-December 1956 Rosa Parks and the NAACP boycotted their local buses in order to protest against the segregation on public transport.
The Montgomery bus boycott was extremely crucial in helping to establish a set of tactics that would be repeated across the south; mass protest, peaceful protests and damaging White businesses by boycott, highlighting the impact this had on the movement.
In 1957 MLK, SCLC, NAACP and other members of protest groups embarked on a mass protest that would be known as 'The March on Washington'.
This was significant as the march sparked mass media attention and interest for the movement all over the world and the crowd of over 200,000 (black and white Americans) put pressure on the federal government to make a change
Furthermore the combined efforts of the Civil Rights groups ended discrimination in many places including restaurants, hotels and theatres, showing how powerful the groups were and the positive impact they had on the movement.
Overall, this was significant factor in the growing demand for Civil Rights as the protest groups gained mass media attention and support from all over the world for the campaigning and ended discrimination in public places.
However this was not as significant as Experiences of black soldiers during WW2 as this provided the basis for which effective protest groups could thrive on.
Furthermore the protest groups such as the black Panthers which had gained support for their self help 10 point programme were shut down before the FBI before they could make a real impact or grow the movement, limiting the impact this had.