Animal and Plant responses (Intro to behaviour (Abiotic factors- These…
Animal and Plant responses
Intro to behaviour
Abiotic factors- These include temperature, light intensity, humidity and mineral levels etc. These are known as non- living.
Biotic factors- These are interactions of living organisms such as predation, prey and parasitism.
Innate behaviour, your born with it. While Learnt behaviour is when you learn it through time.
Growth responses is slow and brings permanent changes to the cell size.
Turgor responses are reversible and is changed by how much water the cell contains.
This can enable for an organism to be able to live successfully in its habitat and to carryout everyday life. This is for both plants and animals
Structural Adaptations: What the organism has. Eg, it has a tail, it has fur etc.
Behavioural Adaptations: What the organism does, How it acts. Eg, a cheetah stalks its prey.
Physiological Adaptations: How the organism functions. To do with chemicals of the organisms body.
Ecological Niche- This is the organisms habitat. But they will only stay there is if will benefit them. So if their mate is there and they are able to grow there.
:check: Fundamental Niche: The organism would only occupy the niche if there are the right environmental conditions are present.
:check: Realised niche: This is the real niche that the organism is in.
Timing And Responses
Nocturnal: Active at night , Diurnal: Active through the day and Crepuscular: Active in the hours of duck and dawn.
Circa Annual: Yearly (365 days)
Circa Tidal: Tides (12.4 hours)
Circa lunar: Monthly (29 days)
Circadian: Daily activity (24 hours)
:check: Endogenous: Internally driven
:check: Exogenous: Externally driven
Photoperiodism in plants
:check: Long day plants- They flower when they have a long period of day light, So they need a photoperiod greater than their critical day length and a short period of night. These flower in summer
:check: Short day plants- They flower when they have a short period of day light, so they need a photoperiod of less than their critical day length to grow and a long period of night. These flower in autumn, winter and early spring.
:check: Day neutral plants- they are independent of light. And so they don't need light to grow.
:check: Vernalisation: Seeds such as Wheat need a certain amount of cold before they can germinate.
:check: Dormancy: This is when the seed will wait until the right season to germinate.
:check: Abscission: This is the process of when leaves fall. This could be from windy weather, animal browsing in the bush/ trees or a drought. But also seasonal change will make the leaves fall.
Where both animals and plants are synchronised to a certain period, the circadian 24 hour period. It is also known to be an endogenous rhythm.
An external or environmental cue such as light, temperature or time of day which entrains (synchronises) an organisms biological rhythms to the earths 24 hour cycle.
This occurs during entrainment. It is how much the activity/ rhythm has been shifted forward or backwards.
Orientation in Animals
Taxes- Movement of organisms towards or away from external stimulus. Its a directional movement.
:check: Positive/ negative Phototaxis- Light
:check: Positive/ negative Chemotaxis- Chemicals
:check: Positive/ negative Gravitaxis/ Geotaxis- Gravity
:check: Positive Thermotaxis- Heat/ temperature
:check: Positive Thigmotaxis- Touch
:check: Positive Rheotaxis- Current
Kinesis- This is a non-directional response.
:check: Orthokinesis- The speed of a movement.
:check: Klinokinesis- Rate of turning