How can the issues created in comparative research be overcome? (Issues…
How can the issues created in comparative research be overcome?
Occurs when cases are picked on the dependent variable.
Commonality suggested by not be a conclusion in other cases.
Non-random choice of cases.
When concepts travel across context they can lose their clear meaning, concepts become vague.
Too many variables, too few cases.
Hard to come to a conclusion of which variable is the explanatory factor.
Lack of generalisability.
Generality over complexity.
Increases chance of conceptual stretching.
Loose theoretical integration - propositions not theory, merely identifies associations (thin).
Often based on poor data availability.
Conceptual Stretching - Issue, Overcoming, Example
Selection Bias - Issue, Overcoming, Example
Over-determination - Issue, Overcoming, Example
Sample Size, Issue, Overcoming, Example
Many issues, often perfect to overcome all of them, bridging often required.
Ladder of Abstraction
Small N/Large N
A bridging of the two necessary.
Bridging is the only way to overcome many of these issues.
Large 'n' reduces this issue - variable based approach, not case based.
MSSD can be used to reduce the variation.
Don't base research on the dependent variable - this is harder with MDSD.
If MDSD is dependent variable it should always be noted that a full conclusion cannot be made, merely a possible relationship.
Large 'n' samples usually reduce selection bias, allows for variation of independent variables.
Primary category - authoritarian.
Secondary category - populist authoritarianism, bureaucratic authoritarianism.
Components - limited pluralism, distinctive mentalities.
Primary category - democracies.
Secondary category - participatory, liberal and popular democracy.
Components - limitations to state power, participation in political system, broadly egalitarian.
Components - contact with local authorities, members of political parties, part of campaigns, talking about politics.
Ladder of Generality
High extension, low intension - populist movements.
Medium - right wing populist movements.
Low extension, high intension - right wing populist parties.
Euroscepticism - has many defining attributes, different contexts in the EU, left and right wing scepticism.
Revolutions - France 1789 an China 1927 - based on dependent variable, what about where the proletarian exists but there is no revolution?
Few cases - UKIP, FN
Numerous variables - economic crisis, immigration levels, ideology, electoral systems, cleavages.
Keating - State sub-nationalism.
Few cases - Scotland, Quebec, Catalonia
Charted - historical, economic, cultural and political factors.
World Values Survey
100 countries, 90% of population.
How values affect socio-political life.
Values affect democracy etc.