Knowledge is a true-belief arising from exercising an intellectual virtue.
We can have knowledge of a proposition when our belief is justified by an intellectual virtue (power).
Intellectual virtue = broad cognitive abilities that are helpful for attaining truth.
These are either innate abilities or acquired habits that enable a person to arrive at truth in a particular field.
Must be both subjectively and objectively justified.
How can we have objective knowledge about the reality of a proposition?
We can have K of the proposition if we have a reliable reason for believing it. The believer themselves do not need to be reliable.
it is a weaker condition for K.
Is success from ability sufficient for K? (Pritchard).
A belief may be produced by an intellectual virtue but still be too lucky to class as luck.
Safety is also a necessary condition.
Externalist position - anyone with internalist leanings is unlikely to find this account satisfactory.
Success from ability.
Knowledge has a normative/ evaluative discipline.
Criticises foundationalist and coherentist conceptions of knowledge.
Grounding knowledge in basic beliefs which are justified by sensory experience, memory & rational insight is flawed because these vary from person - person & thus do not provide a sturdy foundation for attaining truth.
Fails to give adequate epistemic weight to experience. It is possible for someone to have a coherent set of beliefs but have them conflict with their experience & thus again fails to attain truth.
Provides an alternative model for epistemic justification.
Justification is stratified:
1) primary justification = intellectual powers.
2) secondary justification = beliefs produced by these powers.
= Externalist version of foundationalism.
Beliefs rooted in intellectual powers are justified because they are likely to be true.
Knowledge of a proposition should not be located subjectively, it can be explained through external epistemic powers.
What is virtue epistemology?
What is VE?
Offers an alternative discourse away from the foundationalist - coherentist debate.
Also offers a response to the Gettier problem.
Alternative to the internalist - extenalist debate.
Is a normative approach to philosophy. Concerned w/ values & how we attain K.
draws on act-based theories
Focuses on the person and not acts.
what is an intellectual virtue?
A reliable or truth-conducive property of a person.
Cognitive faculties e.g. vision, memory & introspection (reliabilism).
Intellectual character traits e.g. open-mindedness, inquisitiveness etc (responsibilism).