What matters more in determining the nature of a party system: social…
What matters more in determining the nature of a party system: social cleavages or electoral rules?
Dependent - Two Party Systems
Role of social cleavages.
Selection bias - basing on dependent variable will lead to bias.
Unit of Analyisis
Divisions in Society
Division of Voters
State v Church
Rural V Urban
Workers V Employers
Thawing of Old Cleavages
Some cleavages become less relevant and start disappearing - defrosting.
Some new cleavages arising out of postmodernism - nationalist/cosmopolitan etc.
Globalisation cleavage - winners and losers.
Requirement of voting numbers - e.g. 50% of vote required for governance.
Influence how cleavages are translated into parties.
Determines whether there is latent demand for representation.
When voting systems are disproportional smaller parties are punished - PR v FPTP, forces strategic voting.
System of interactions resulting from inter-party competitions.
The role of parties in a political system.
Dominant Party System - one party successive wins.
Non-partisan - elections occur without reference to parties.
One party system - single party has the right to form a government. Same with two/three party systems.
Multi party system multiple political parties.
Satori - by ideology.
Small ideological distance - moderate party system.
Large ideological distance - polarised party system.
Open or Closed
Closed party system - predicable and familiar outcomes, difficult for outside parties to breakthrough.
Open party system - differing patterns of alternation of governing parties, unpredictable outcomes.
Many parties - high PR, high social heterogeneity
Few parties - every other mixture.
Nationalisation of party systems.
Concurrent Presidential Elections
National Cleavage Patterns
Parties and Cleavages
Parties exist to represent cleavages.
Party Systems and Cleavages
Do cleavages determine the party system (the number of parties).
The greater the demand for distinctive representation, the greater the demand for political parties.
Cleavages create demand for increased number of political parties.
Electoral Rules and Party Systems
Electoral institutions determine whether this latent demand for representation actually leads to the existence of new parties.
Non-proportional electoral systems act as a break on the tendency for social cleavages to be translated into new parties.
Depends on how votes are translated into seats - when electoral systems are disproportional, the effect is that small parties are punished and parties are geographically concentrated - voters start voting strategically, two left wing parties may combine.
Environment v Economy
Rise of the Greens
Cosmopolitanism v Nationalism
Rise of UKIP
UK becoming more of a multi-party system.
But despite this - still impossible for new parties to come into power.
First past the post is not proportionate.
Leads to smaller parties being unrepresented.
In turn strategic voting starts occurring.
Leads to fewer parties and a smaller party system
Labour v Tory
Moderate Two Party System
Fewer parties but just as much a chance of each winning in Presidential elections.
Still social cleavages - just not represented in parties.
Impact of Social Cleavages on Party Systems
Impact of Electoral Rules on Party Systems
Electoral rules and systems have more influence as restrains the UK to a two party system - although cleavages allow for more parties, these parties will never gain power.
Idea of voting green doesnt count, wasted vote etc.
The type of party system cannot wholly be measured by the number of parties.