"Modern" industrial fisheries and the crisis of overfishing…
"Modern" industrial fisheries and the crisis of overfishing (Mansfield 2010)
we have profoundly affected the worlds oceans both directly and indirectly, rapid decline around the world of many species, crisis of over-fishing for fish, their ecosystems an the people that depend on them. The cause is the rapid growth of fishing and seafood processing, contradiction, not protecting the environment which they depend on.
Harmful industrial fishing is the purposeful outcome of ongoing efforts to foster a western, capitalist model of development expanding fishing even if it degrades the very resource the industry depends on
Global over-fishing: definitions and evidence
killing fish as well as breeding adults, cant replenish their population, changing the local or regional ecosystem
Collapse of a variety of individual fisheries around the world, crashes cant sustain catches at previous levels.
FAO- almost one third of fish stocks today are over fished, over 80% are fully or over exploited
Global fish captures are not growing, aquaculture are growing, farmed fish, gain feed from wild fisheries destroying or polluting local habitats
Explaining over fishing; industrialisation of fisheries for modern economic development
Big boats and big business- staggering size and sophistication of technology- cn stay at sea for over a year, use industrial fishing methods including trawling, purse seining and long lines. Have processing facilities on board
Pollock is very much an industrial product: it is caught in vast quantities by a small number of vessels owned by large firms, mass produced and sold by large food chains
Consumption in the global north
Profitable because of consumption- North America, Japan and the European Union
However, blame for over fishing cannot be divided equally amongst all people or all places. Differences in who benefits from industrial fishing.
Industrial fisheries= "modern economic development"
While industrialisation might be seen as the inevitable outcome of a seemingly natural process of economic development, both envisioned and fostered. Fisheries are targeted by both national and international governmental bodies as an engine for regional or national economic development, small and inefficient replaced with large, capital intensive and highly profitable
Governments encourage this such as Pollock in the US, 1970s Americanisation and a new industrial US fishery for the benefit of the nation.
Industrial vs. small-scale fishing
Policy makers have encouraged industrial fishing to replace small-scale and artisanal fishing
evidence suggests small-scale fisheries offer a variety of environmental and economic benefits
What are the differences among them, depleting fisheries, employment and fuel
Fishing provides unique opportunities to alleviate poverty small scale fisheries should be encouraged rather than undermined
Small fishers are harmed by depletion they done create
Contradictions of capitalism
Capitalist industrialisation brings constant pressures for individual firms to keep costs down, they externalise the costs of their impacts- don't pay when they destroy habitat or release poluttants
Depend upon the environment to provide foods and services , but under constant pressure to destroy the environment and continue doing so under financial investments
Dynamics among industrial technology, consumer markets, models of development and capitalist relations to nature, over fishing is the result of the massive industrialisation of fisheries since the 1950s, part of the broader political and cultural economy of fishing- capital intensive fishing prioritised
Not the "tragedy of the commons"
Fisheries development imposes a particular, culturally specific vision of what nature is, who should control it, how people should use it and who should benefit
Intensifies socio-economic inequality
An apolitical explanation for over fishing, where individual decisions are determined by property rights, if individuals don't own a resource they have no interest in protecting it, because it is not profitable for them to do so, rational individuals maximise their own profit
Private property therefore provides incentives that match individual rationality to conservation goals, however ignores the politics of fisheries development over last 60 years, the industrial mode of development . Gives some people access while ignoring others