Industrial and Commercial Practice (Information and Communication…
Industrial and Commercial Practice
Information and Communication Technology
Simplest form of e-communication; used for messaging and transferring documents.
Rapid Commu. between, designers and manufacturers, retailers and consumers due to its ease and widespread access through internet
Quick and easy
Docs can be attached
Attachments limited in size
Impersonal can be misrepresented
Electronic Data Interchange
Is a new way to do 'paperless' business; transfers business docs through internet
Transmit large complex files; can be used to transmit financial info and payments.
Standard doc format is needed
saves money to eliminate processing paper
saves time as info transferred digitally
Improves customer service as docs are moved faster
Incompatibility because of range of doc formats
Standards updated regularly
Expensive to initially set up
Limits trading with other companies w/EDI
Integrated Services Digital Networks and Broadband
Development of ISDN and Broadband allows huge amounts of data to be transferred across networks
ISDN involves digitisation of telephone networks; enables voice, data, text, graphics, music and video to be transmitted at high speeds over existing telephone lines
Types of Broadband
Asymmetric digital Subscriber Line (ADSL)
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Allows locations to interact via simultaneous video and audio
Eliminates costly and time consuming travel
Includes cameras, screens, mic, and speakers; 2 types of system
Dedicated System; required components packaged to single console
Desktop system; add on to normal PC
Visual info can be comm
Accelerates the decision making
Sync of time differences
Connection can often fail
More efficient than traditional methods
Test components on screen
Works with CAM
Reduces need for large drawings offices
CAD files can be sent across the world
ability to zoom in or out
the use of automatic chamfers and fillets
Ability to copy, cut, paste, revolve, rotate and mirror entities
Wide range of font available
Ability to easily modify existing files
Virtual modelling and testing
Represent accurate 3D models in a virtual environment
No need to build a model significantly reduces development times
Easily modified; function called 'bi-directional parametric association' aids modification by causing any design feature changes to be automatically updated on any other linked features
Models can be made in a matter of hours
Examples: Stereolighography and 3D printing
Shortens the design cycle
Capability to design models from a variety of materials
Splits 3D model in horizontal cross sections and layers material layer by layer
For Communication and testing purposes ; easier to understand 3D models over CAD drawings
Enables the manufacture of standard machine tools in prototype lead times
The automated manufacture of sale-able products directly from 3D CAD Software; custom made components
Marketing, Distribution and Retail
Reduces time between placing order and delivery of product
13 digit Barcodes
Each product can be electronically ID using its unique 13digit barcode
Scanned using a laser and it is reflected back to the photoelectric cell. They are detected because they reflect less light that the background they are printed on
13 digit: first 2 numbers: where product was made, five numbers are brand owners, five are provided by manufacturer to ID type of product, final no. is a check digit; confirms whole number is scanned correctly
Information regarding the price is not contained in barcode, EPOS relays the code to a database and it returns with the correct price
Visual codes that can be read and decoded by machine vision systems
Comes from manufacturers requirements for tracking their products and components
Batch and serial numbers can be used t track defective batches and ID counterfeit parts
Full account of financial transactions
Data can be input into spreadsheets
Monitor perfomace of all product lines, react quickly to demand especially for Mass Production
Accurate info for customer buying trend, when making market decisions
A full and responsive stock control system, real time
Ensure sufficient stock is available to meet customer needs without overstocking
Internet Marketing and Sales
Means competing in a global market
Marketing 'Tailor made' for certain e-commerce communities; opposed to 'blanket' advertising in traditional media
World wide reach
Less expensive than traditional media
Personal info shared
Difficult Nav complex webpages
More on Pg 93
Digital Special Effects
Background colour is used to film a fore ground sequence
Colours tend to be easily distiguishable from skin tones and clothes; normally green or blue is used
Actors are filmed in front of the background colour
Background is then digitally removed
In place goes CGI created moving images or still images
Filming 'on location' without the need to travel
Placing CGI in the background
creating the set or scene is impossible in real life (or not cost effective)
Actors can be placed in scenes that are too dangerous to film
Various backdrops provided at little investment or hassle. Beats front or rear screen projection. Background can be changed repeatedly.
Can be time consuming
you need to keep even lighting on your background, no shadows or wrinkles.
You need to keep your subject a decent distance from the back and make sure the light doesn't splash green on your subject.
Curly hair doesn't extract as well as straight hair, even with the best extraction programs.
You need to keep backdrop light and subject similar for believably.
Not so important - Not mentioned in the Text book
Computer Generated Images
3D models are animated, involves key changes in movement
The movement between 'key frames' is calculated by the software to ensure a smooth transition
Motion capture allows greater realism
Markers are used at each joint to track movement
The result is a realistic looking movement; Gollum was a CGI character
Costumes and body size can be changed readily
Makeup and age can be adjusted easier
Light / Colours can be added afterwards
Directors can choose any angle for a scene - including what may have been impossible in live action
Characters blend seamlessly with their environments
No need for green screen filming and set constructions which can be costly and time consuming.
Expensive hardware needed
Special software needed to obtain and process the data
Highly skilled - technical animators are needed.
Rapid obsolescence. The software and techniques are developing and improving all the time.
Movement has to follow laws of physics
Used to create effects that are not possible by traditional means. Mixed with live action. Post production 3D modelling
This is a method of tracing over frame by frame of a live action sequence
Originally used for mimicking real life movement; it has been replaced by computers and interpolated rotoscoping
A 3D object is created using a specialist wireframe modelling software. You can then render with colour and texture. This allows the object/character to be detailed and look more realistic than a plastic model.
Genetically Modified Wood
quicker growing trees providing sustainable supply of wood
Resistance to disease to provide high quality product
reduced strength in lignin fibres - reduction in chemicals needed to break it down
Long term side effects not apparent
'escape of modified genes into natural ecosystem
Rapid growth can have a intensive role of soil regeneration; greater demand for water, nutrients recycled into the soil
Biotech is at the forefront of research; experimenting with GM trees
Involves inserting a gene into the tree to change it biological characteristics
Paper and board industry is growing in demand
More Ads and Dis on Pg 96
Trade name of chemical company ICI ; for first fully degradable polymer, Polyhydroxybutrate (PHB)
Used in some blow molded shampoo bottles and credit cards
Water Resistant and effective barrier to air
Produced using sugars and other Carbs in a fermentation process
A white powdered polymer is extracted from refined bacteria
Rapidly degrades without oxygen present
Innocent had introduced a bottle made from Polyactic acid (PLA), comes from corn starch
Encouragement of composting bottles; because of lack of processing facilities to process this new polymer
Ads over regular bottles (PED, HDPE)
Regular bottles use finite resources, this uses corn starch
Made using a totally carbon neutral process, no greenhouse gases emitted in production
Is biodegradable, so breaks down easily and safely and relatively quickly
Fully degradable in suitable conditions. Sun, moisture and Oxygen.
Reduced time in landfill sites, therefore they don’t fill up as quickly.
The harmful effects of waste in landfill are reduced.
Starch based plastics are formed from carbon that is already in the ecosystem. Therefore it does not contribute to global warming.
Derived from renewable raw materials that decompose in natural environment
Degradation of some polymers will still contribute to global warming through the release of carbon dioxide as main end product.
Damages recycled plastics when mixed and reduces its value.
Fully Biodegradable polymers are expensive when compared to petroleum based products. Not enough are produced to improve the economy of scale. (more of a product that is produced the cheaper it is.)
Semi Biodegradable polymers remain in the environment for years.
They may not be as energy efficient to produce as synthetic (man made / petroleum based) polymers.
Allows micro-organisms to degrade the polymer to produce an inert material that is less harmful to the environment