Trade and Future Development ("Afro-optimism" (Zeleza, 2008)…
Trade and Future Development
Growth in Africa
2nd fastest growing $ region.
Resource (commodity) trading
Heavily affected by the 2008-9 global financial crisis.
Affected by decline in US oil export demand.
Improved macro-$ policies (improved horizontal & vertical diversification).
High commodity prices (post-2000 commodity boom).
Favourable weather conditions (for agr.)
Stimulation of the private sector.
Increased regional trading (TFTA, COMESA & SADC).
Role of China.
$ stimulation -
Global government institutions.
Flows of people.
lack of transparency.
use of Chinese labour.
Impacts on African industrialisation & development.
The global competition from China has had -ve impact on SSA manufacturing industry:
1) squeezing SSA clothing, textile, furniture & footwear industries export-orientated industrialisation.
2) China has led a change in the organisation of global value chains (retreat of lead chain governors) (Kaplinsky, 2008).
Interactions can have differential effects .
NB. China can have complementary or competitive impacts.
Protectionism can be +ve for regional trade.
Textile Industry in Ghana
The Galamsey Industry in Ghana.
Agricultural subsidies in Malawi.
"Re-birth". Occured in the C14th - C17th Europe.
Implies a 3 step model:
2) Deterioration & collapse.
3) Re-birth & regeneration.
History of colonialism (sankofa).
Great African Kingdoms.
Imperial Africa (slave trade & colonisation).
= culturalist perspective.
But, progress is hampered by inequalities, lack of youth opportunities, weak investment, lack of gender empowerment
Is Africa experiencing a renaissance? If so, what are the indicators & potential negatives.
17 Emerging Nations & a further 6 "threshold nations".
Government accountability/ democracy.
Also experiencing more sensible economic policies and favourable global $ climate.
Better education & healthcare.
Better infrastructure (access to road & electricity 👀 as most important).
Major change in relationships with the international community (HIPC & MDRI.)
Although <1 in 3 Africans have access to paved roads. - The problem of how $ is being spent.
New generation of policymakers, activists and business leaders e.g. Anas Aremeyaw Anas, Brigitha Faustin & Teto Ibso.
"Afro-optimism" (Zeleza, 2008)
Independence (1960s). Democratisation (19890s)
Coined in SA's aftermath of apartheid (Mandela).
Emerged from growing nationalist sentiments after WWII.
A longue duree (Zeleza, 2008).
European Renaissance = 150years.
represents the entire African community ≠ South Africa e.g. NEPAD.
Shared identity & history (colonialism).
Part of an anti-imperialist narrative.
Humanist perspective (Bongmba,2004).
African theology (needs to be adopted by Christian community to enable indigenous African development.)
Requires a focus on humanities emphasised education to restore moral consciousness.
New meso-level inter-state regionalism e.g. SADC.
(can in part be 👀 as a response to Chinese competition) (Shaw, 2000).
Requires development at 3 levels:1) national, 2) regional & 3) local levels that also focuses on the civil society (Shaw, 2000).
"Afro-pessimism" (Zeleza, 2008) ≈ Asian flu
problematic socially constructed 👀 of "African identity".
Euro-American racist imaginary.
Legacy of colonialism (artificial borders).
Confined to South Africa? (Thabo Mbeki)
NB. regional differences! E.g. South Africa v Nigeria (Zeleza, 2008).
Crises of growth & accumulation.
Neo-Marxist model of crisis of capitalism 👀
Neoliberalism & SAP's (Zeleza, 2008).
Evolution of a two-tier society in Africa.
The fall of "development theory" & replaced w/ post-development turn.