Gender and Climate Change
Gender and Climate Change
Women and work
Beasts of burden
Gender in politics.
Average female political representation is 22%.
socially constructed ≠ sex.
Access and ownership of land.
Unequal power relations.
Climate change in Africa.
NB. effects depend on micro-climate and occurs at a no. of scales.
Issues of ethnic barriers.
Forced migration & climate refugees.
high agricultural dependance (reliance on a narrow range of commodity exports).
Greatest $ exposure to climatic variation.
Accounts for cca. 50% of GDP and 60% of employment in Africa.
Green Revolution (HYVs).
Tractorisation in India.
Zimbabwe's agricultural policy.
Wetter = Eastern Africa
Drier = Sahel.
NB. precipitation elasticities are much smaller than temp. elasticities (Kurukulasuriya, ).
Despite adaptive/ absorptive capacity, African agriculture revenues will fall w/ increased warming & drying (Kurukulasuriya, 2006).
Dryland crops and livestock farmers are especially vulnerable.
Irrigated crops can actually benefit.
Increased precipitation also benefits.
Africa is warming faster than the global average.
Disease (Malaria & Dengue Fever).
Increased mortality rates from < temps.
Darfur Crisis, Sudan (Brown, 2007).
Neo-Malthusian 👀 drawing on old-colonial notions of "dependant Africans" (Hartmann, 2010).
Feeds into the `western "crisis narrative'.
Pessimistic narrative & feeds well into US aims.
NB. don't assume a linear relationship between scarcity & conflict across the whole of Africa.
Also climate change is modelled / predictions and thus uncertain
NB. the scarcity storyline is central to such discussions (Detraz, 2009).
A feedback loop between conflict & adaptive capacity (shaped by poverty, weak governance & political marginalisation).
Climate change is predicted to impact LDCs more than DC because they have less wealth & expertise for technological innovation to mitigate against it (Reuveny, 2007).
LDCs will experience more climate-change induced migration & conflict (Reuveny, 2007).
Climate refugees fail to account for complex social aspects of adaption that are highly spatio-temporarily variable (Hartmann, 2010).
Threat/ hazard event.
risk = hazard x vulnerability.
"The extent to which natural or social systems are susceptible to sustaining damage from climate change, the sensitivity of the system to changes in climate (Watson, IPCC, 2008)."
The susceptability of a human society to damage.
Africa''s adaption through technology adoption has 👀 slow progress (Kurukulasuriya, 2006) e.g. irrigation, HYV's & capital.
Namibia case-study (Angula, 2015).
Population of 2m.
51.3% are women.
Gini co-efficient of 0.7.
1) 70% of those living in poverty = women. 2) Men & women are affected differently due to gender roles.
3) Responsible fro cca. 70% of food production.
4) Responsible for collecting waters.
5) Responsible for more domestic tasks.
6) Have unequal access to information & resources.
Climate change impacts.
IPCC Third Assessment Report. - Decreased grain yields.
Changes in run-off.
Increased drought stress.
Increases in temp.
Precipitation decreases & variability.
Sea-level increases of 1.2mm p.a.
Sectors particularly vulnerable to climate change: 1) water.
5) coastal zone.
7) energy. (INC, 2002).
Namibia faces absolute water scarcity by 2020.