Blood Circulation and Transportation
Blood Circulation and Transportation
transport of metabolites, enabling metabolic specialization
transport of excretory products from tissues to excretory organs; from organ of synthesis (e.g.: urea in liver) to kidney
transport of gases between respiratory organs and tissues; storage of oxygen
transport of nutrients from the digestive tract to tissues; to and from storage organs
transport of hormones
transport of cells of non-respiratory function
transfer of heat from deeper organs to surface for dissipation
transmission of force
Path of blood in the body
Hepatic Portal System
Types of Blood Cells
Presence or absence of type A and type B antigens on red blood cells determines a person’s blood type
important for combating multicelluar parasites and certain infections, they also important mediators of allergy responses and asthma pathogenesis
contain anti-coagulant heparin which prevents blood from clotting too quickly. They also play a role in both parasitic infections and allergies.
appear and are transformed into macrophages, large phagocytizing cells that release white blood cell growth factors.
White blood cells (leukocytes)
help fight infections
Red blood cells (erythrocytes)
transport oxygen using hemoglobin, which contains iron, and combines loosely with oxygen
Functions of the Lymphatic System
Fat absorption and transportation from the digestive system
Fluid Balance (recycle 10% of blood plasma)
Factors of Venous Return
Presence of valves in veins
Skeletal muscle contraction
Types of Blood Vessel
permit exchange of material with tissues
return blood from the capillaries to the heart
carry blood away from the heart to the capillaries
The heartbeat is rhythmic
Each heartbeat, called the cardiac cycle.
The ventricles contract (while the atria relax)
All chambers rest
The atria contract (while the ventricles relax)
Semilunar valves (i.e. aortic & pulmonary valves)- between the ventricles and their attached vessels.
Atrioventricular valves (i.e. tricuspid & mitral valves)- between the atria and ventricles
Blood: always contained within blood vessel
iron-based hemoglobin (red colour)
Closed circulatory system - found in annelids (earthworms).
Hemolymph: a mixture of blood and tissue fluid that flows into a body cavity
copper-based (blue-green colour)
Open circulatory system - found in arthropods and molluscs.
Blood pressure is normally measured on the brachial artery of the upper arm
results from blood being forced into the arteries during ventricular systole
the pressure in the arteries during ventricular diastole
Two different circulatory pathways in vertebrates
pulmonary circuit: heart pumps blood to the lungs
systemic circuit: heart pumps blood to all parts of the body except for the lungs
Single-loop : heart only pumps blood to gills.
Circulation in different types of animals
All vertebrates have closed circulatory system
two atria & two ventricle
two atria & single ventricle
Not have a circulatory system but gastrovascular cavity
Closed circulatory system
Open circulatory system
Cardiovascular disease -Plaque can cause a clot to form on the irregular arterial wall
Blood stem cells
A stem cell: a cell that is capable of becoming different types of cells
Rh System : another important antigen in matching blood types is the Rh factor
Erythroblastosis Fetalis: during pregnancy, if the mother is Rh-negative and the father is Rh-positive, the child may be Rh-positive
Lymphatic System: lymph vessels, found in all tissues EXCEPT the central neural system, bone marrows, and other tissues without blood vessels
Function of circulatory system
transports oxygen and nutrients, such as glucose and amino acids, to the cells.
picks up wastes and excreted from the body via lungs or kidneys.
gas exchange and nutrient-for-waste exchange occur across the walls of the smallest blood vessels, capillaries.
helps the body to transport heat and transmit force.
The main function of circulation is moving a fluid in the body is to provide rapid mass transport over distance where diffusion is inadequate or too slow.