"Revolutionary Changes in the Atlantic World" (The American…
"Revolutionary Changes in the Atlantic World"
How did the Enlightenment respond to the "Old Order"?
Many Enlightenment thinkers thought that the "Old Order" of Europe was outdated and focused too much on religious guidance. They romanticized the New World and used it to support critiques of European society.
The American Revolution
The campaign of fiscal reform and new taxes for the colonies
New commercial regulations that hindered trade
The outlawing of paper money
British tried to limit colonial pressure on Natives
The effort to stop rebellions
How did the United States construct a Republic?
French alliances aided the Americans in defeating the British. The Treaty of Paris then outlined the terms for American independence. State legislatures began to draft written constitutions, giving the people's vote more power (which became popular in Europe), and the Second Continental Congress drafted the AOC, ratified in 1781.
The French Revolution
How did France's class system lead to war?
The Three Estates met, but the Third Estate's demands were squashed before they could even compromise because of the King's fear of a constitutional monarchy. However, they met anyway and drafted a constitution. The King tried to arrest them, but the commoners got word of it and seized arms, attacking the Bastille fortress and the nobles.
What was the significance of the "terror" phase?
The Terror phase showed the ruthlessness of the revolutionary government and made the French afraid to criticize it. Civil rights and liberties no longer existed in this period and Maximilian Robespierre carried out the practice of executing those who disagreed with the revolution and/or its methods.
The fiscal crisis
The peasant classes began to experience poor harvests which increased their cost of living and led to a decline in demand. The poor class couldn't afford food, find jobs, or raise their children and so they often engaged in violent rioting. But the real crisis began when, to pay war debts, the Crown tried to impose taxes on the wealthy noble classes who had previously been exempted. Parlements were created for financial advice but they wanted to protect their own interests and instead questioned the King's decisions.
The Haitian Revolution
Challenging of authority of colonial officials due to unrest in France
Unrest between gens de colour and white populations
The attempt to reinstate slavery by Napoleon
The Haitian Revolution is the only revolution where slave freedom was taken by force. It is the only successful slave revolution in history.
How did colonial wars and fiscal crises fuel revolution?
The millions of dollars of debt accumulated by war between European nations weakened governments and made them desperate for new sources of revenue at a time when the public was critical of all the war and had become too large for most governments to handle.
How did revolution spread liberal ideals and nationalism?
The Congress of Vienna
Representatives from Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia met to reestablish conservative political order in Europe. It succeeded in the short-term, but nationalism and liberalism still lowkey existed in Europe.