Patterns of resource consumption (Carrying Capacity (A country's…
Patterns of resource consumption
Resources and Population
believed that population was growing at a faster rate (exponentially) than resources (arithmetically). As population exceeds resources he believed there would be either preventive checks (reduced birth rates) or positive checks (famine and war).
These are measures taken by humans to reduce shortages.
: Despite their name, they are actually more negative solutions to resource shortages. These might be fighting and war or massive famines which actually reduce the overall population and therefore demand.
idea of thought that follows Malthus's ideas
In 1968 Paul Ehrlich published his book ''The Population Bomb". He believed that population growth had now outstripped the availability of resources and that starting in the 1970's there would be mass famines killing millions
Club of Rome:
The Club of Rome were formed in 1972. They were headed by Dennis Meadows and developed the Limits to Growth Model. They are also believed that the growth in population would lead to worldwide misery. (The model basically suggests that ability of resources, food, the environment, etc. to meet human needs will be reached by 2070)
the school of thought that disagrees with Malthus's pessimism
Born in 1910, Ester Boserup had a very optimistic outlook. She believed that humans could adapt, develop new ideas and find new resources that would support the growing population. Her famous saying was ''necessity is the mother of invention''.
The maximum number of people that may live in or visit a destination at the same time, without causing destruction of the physical, economic, socio-cultural environment and an unacceptable decrease in the quality of the living environment
A country's carrying capacity may change because:
New resources are discovered or resources run out
New technology like solar panels or desalination are introduced
New transport links are built
Natural disasters damage infrastructure and resources
New sources of water are found or new crops engineered
: This deals with the extent to which the natural environment can tolerate a population
This relates to the amount of people an economy can support in terms of jobs, levels of debt.
Perceptual or Social:
This relates to the negative socio-cultural affects related to populations size. Perceptual and social carrying capacity may have been reached when the local tolerance for an area decreases and they decide to move.
: This is the maximum number of people that an area is actually able to support/hold.
factors that can affect a country's carrying capacity
Technology and Development
Arable Land (soil)
Problems if a destination exceeds its carrying capacity
Tensions between different groups e.g. environmentalists and industrialists
Water pollution from increased waste
Water shortages from increased demand
Air pollution from increased cars and flights
Unemployment or underemployment
Visual and noise pollution
Disturbance of wildlife
Reduction in visitor numbers (tourists)
Increase in crime
Increased death rates and reduced life expectancy
Shortage of school and hospital places
Housing shortages (homelessness and increase in informal settlements)
the amount of biologically productive land and sea needed to regenerate the resources human population and to absorb and render harmless the corresponding waste.
The ability of an area to provide resources and absorb waste.
The measurement of biocapacity and ecological footprint. (in 2005 2.1 global hectares per person.)
Country's whose ecological footprint is lower than there biocapacity.
: Country's whole ecological footprint is higher than there biocapacity.
The total amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused by an organization, event, product or person.
Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI)
: Created by scientists at Yale and Columbia Universities, it attempts to measure countries environmental sustainability. It uses 26 indicators and 76 measurements and looks at things like pollution levels, environmental regulations and resource use. The higher the score the more environmentally sustainable a country is.