Quinolone derivatives – chloroquine, mefloquine, lumefantrine, primaquine, quinine
• Accumulates in food vacuole and forms a complex with heme. Heme polymerase activity is then disrupted leading to an accumulation of cytotxic free heme
• Rapid killing
Antibiotics – doxycycline – inhibits an organelle with a prokaryotic ancestor. Inhibits protein synthesis
• Slower killing, longer half life
Anti-folates – atovaquone+proquanil – inhibit folate and thus pyrimidine synthesis.
• longer half life
Artemisinin derivatives – from Chinese sweet wormwood plant. Eg, artemether, artesunate. Bind iron, breaking down peroxide bridges leading to free radicals.
• Rapid killing but short half life (need combination therapy)