Cromwellian land settlement (settlement reforms (Catholic landholding was…
Cromwellian land settlement
Cromwellian conquest in Ireland (1649) in response to Michael Jones' Catholic uprising.
theme of persecution, confiscation & transplantation as well as emergence of a wholly Protestant Irish Parliament.
Revisionism: the Cromwellians, w/ declarations of reform & Protestant ascendancy (which fitted well into est. pattern of English govt. in Ireland) were brought crashing down by Irish realities (Bartlett, 2000).
the saying of mass was banned & Catholic clergy were persecuted w/ the re-establishment of anti-Catholic laws.
firm determination to destroy Catholic $ & political authority.
Catholics were ordered out of towns, barred from corporations & trade guilds (e.g. Cork Catholics).
towns which held Catholic majority (Galway & Waterford) went into prolonged decline & collapse of $ clout.
Down Survey 1654-49.
Irish Protestant's monopoly of political power = direct result of urban life domination & land-ownership.
Irish Parliament only elected 1 Catholic (Geoffrey Browne of Tuam) but he did not take his seat.
Adventurer's Act (1642)
Authorised mass confiscation of Irish land to reward those who would 'adventure" their $ to suppress the rebellion.
gave a great deal of funding to the scheme.
Act of Settlement (1652) & Act of Satisfaction (1653) brought an end to Catholic landholding East of the Shannon.
Little evidence to connect this to Cromwell (Gardiner, 1989).
Catholic landholding was confined to Connacht as it was furthest from European mainland.
Results fell short of that planned - cca. 1900 Old English did migrate to Connacht but most refused to leave or moved back when times were quieter.
Religious settlements in Wexford 👀 a drop in Catholic land titles in 1650s but continuity 1640s-1790s.
Land redistribution in Connacht = a shambles.
Catholic landholding share fell from cca. 60% in 1640 to 20% in 1660 = ending of landlordism.
= the most significant upheaval in European landholding in the entire history of Europe (Smyth, 2000).
Cromwell was not as involved in land settlement of the 1650s than generally thought (Cunningham, 2010).
Cunningham argues that Cromwell was actually interested in fairness for Irish Catholics e.g. intervened in the case of John Grace in 1654.
the role of Fleetword & the Irish Parliament.
Horning argues that Cromwellian land settlement represented the first successful colonisation of Ireland (Horning, 2014) - Protestant control.
privatisation of land replaced rural subsistence agr. practices & redistributive agr.
new forms of urbanisation
estate landscapes - Big Houses
social and $ reforms
the vast Anglo-Protestant immigration hoped by Cromwell (as w/ previous plantations) did not materialise.
widespread destruction of the Catholic position
landscape of resistance - while Cromwell had left the countryside "postrate" in 1652, by the time of the Restoration "all over Ireland the drums & tramplings were to begin again." (Bowen, 1942).
Bowen talks of settler integration & hybrid identity, she also talks of isolation & distance from other members of the Irish community (Bowen, 1942).
Unequal power relations (Horning, 2014).
rapid spread of the market economy = upheaval of traditional Gaelic society (Campbell, )
Charles II was restored in 1660.
👀 tensions between Old Protestants & Catholics over land.
in 1685, James I - a Catholic came to power. He immediately brought in measures to promote & benefit Catholics in England & Ireland.
1686 appointment of Richard "fighting dick" Talbort, Earl of Tycronnell as head of Irish Army.
BUT he was succeeded by Mary I = a Protestant so history shows a constant Protestant0Catholic battle that was not solved by Cromwell!!! (Bartlett, 2000).