Juan Peron and Getulio Vargas
Juan Peron and Getulio Vargas
Became an important supplier of raw materials to the Allies, during WWII.
The United invested large amount of money to build up Brazil's infrastructure, airports, railroads, ports, and highways. Brazil's first steel mill was built through U.S. funds.
Made a team of engineers, economists, and planners to increase technology flow from both public and private sources.
The tax structure of Brazil was revised, for the local and state administration became more dependent on the central government.
Brazil was rapidly industrializing. Vargas wanted goods to be made in Brazil, for Brazil should not be reliant on other countries for goods, and this was evident during the Great Depression.
The economic system dominated by rural landowners was destroyed.
Created a new economic system called the "Estado Novo", which was a corporatism state.
Private Enterprise remained the same.
Vargas further industrialization through the creation of the National Motor Factory, which produced airplane engines and trucks.
Emergence ( In order)
Served in the State Assembly, then became a congressman of the in the Brazilian Legislature in Rio de Janeiro.
Named financial minister of Brazil, after Washington Pereira won the presidency in 1926.
Returned back home to Rio Grande do Sul to assume position of governor in 1928.
Elected as a candidate for the presidency, by the Liberal Alliance, in 1930. Was meant to win, but Pereira broke the Golden Rule of Brazilian politics (presidency alternating Sao Paulo and Minas State).
The vice-president of the Liberal Alliance was assassinated, and the southern states of Brazil sent an army to Rio de Janeiro. Vargas was one of the leaders. The Army of Brazil didn't want to fight a war against the citizens, so they put Vargas into the presidential position of a provisional government.
Vargas was elected to a 4-year term as President of Brazil in 1933.
Built schools and hospitals.
Provided social benefits to the working class through wage increases.
Endorsed anti-American and anti-British ideals of justicialismo (social justice).
Eliminated some constitutional liberties.
Pushed for full employment and health care.
Person's wife who helped him throughout his presidency.
Led protests of working class to defend Peron.
Her death (cancer) in 1952 was the downfall of Peron.
Helped get votes from women.
First lady to Peron during his presidency.
Managed to have good diplomatic relations with U.S and USSR. Also made an effort to build worldwide recognition in the Middle East, Latin America, Europe and the rest of the Western Hemisphere.
Tried to force all interest groups into government (organizations of workers, entrepreneurs, professionals, and students.)
Gave citizens direct representation within the legislatures.
Dictated political life of Argentina through the command of his armed forces.
Utilized mass rallies and the radio to recount his official events and demonstrate his support among the masses.
Peron paid off foreign dept.
Nationalized bank and railroads, among other utilities.
Used the new Industrial National Bank , and tariff protections to sponsor industrialization.
Financed public works on a large scale.
Under the Estado Novo, Brazil became more centralized, where the state had more power.
Made policies which favored the poor and working class.
Did not tax the rich.
Implication of social welfare programs (unemployment insurance, retirement insurance, sanitary conditions, etc.
Downfall from power (In order)
Announced there would be elections right away after WWII, and had no choice but to go through with it, when that moment came. Legal term was meant to expire in 1943.
Leaders in the government and military suspected Vargas would make an excuse to stay in office, so a delegation of military figures was sent to forcibly move Vargas from power in 1945 of October.
Won the election in 1950, but came at a time, where inflation was terribly high, the U.S. (under Eisenhower) denied assistance, and no longer had the autocratic power back in his first presidency.
Was planned to be forcibly removed in 1954 by the Brazilian armed forces, but committed suicide(shot himself) before that could happen (August 24, 1954).
advocated program of social welfare
social security laws were enacted
minimum wage was issued
Did not reach the rural poor
Reformed the voting system of Brazil
Created secret ballots, granted women's suffrage, and made special courts to supervise elections.
Considered the "father of the poor", for he appealed to the millions of urban workers and women of Brazil, and fought big business and corporations.
Regulated unauthorized strikes and unions
Downfall (in order)
On September 1955, he was overthrown by a military-civilian uprising.
Went into exile in Paraguay and Venezuela, Panama, then the Dominican Republic, and finally Spain, while maintaining contact with his followers.
Won the election of 1973 in September., but was plagued by injury, illness, and age. Meanwhile the country drifted into inflation, and the economy became out of control.
Peron died of a heart attack on July, 1, 1974, passing the presidency to his third wife., Maria Estela de Martinez de Peron.
In 1943, overthrew a civilian government and took the post of secretary of labor.
Became minister of war and vice president of Argentina between the years of 1944 and 1945.
Was elected president of Brazil in 1946, as Peron consolidated his power and influence as a national leader.
Heavily censored journalism and media, which participants were jailed and discouraged.
Ruled without a congress.