The major cytokines implicated in atherosclerosis are produced by cells of both the adaptive and innate immune systems, acting upon one another in both a paracrine and an autocrine manner. For instance, IFNγ produced by the effector T-helper 1 (Th1) cell activates phagocytes such as macrophages, and interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-5 produced by Th2 cells may stimulate some macrophage and dendritic cell subsets, as discussed below. IL-5 in particular mediates a link between adaptive and natural immunity . On the other hand, IL-12, IL-18, and type I interferons promote the differentiation of Th1 cells and IL-12 can stimulate the production of IFNγ by NK cells . IL-10, which can be produced by T-cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages, inhibits IL-12 production and Th1-mediated inflammation.