The geography of Anglicisation (1169-1536) (Outline the geographical…
The geography of Anglicisation (1169-1536)
"the coming of the English"
Strongbow became King of Leinster in May 1171 following the death of Mac Murchadha (Bartlett, 2010).
NB. be critical of primary source maps for bias!
Arrival of Richard fitz Gilbert de Clare (1170).
Arrival of the Geraldines (Eager, 1988).
Kildare, Carlow and Wexford. - see map 2.
Arrival of the Flemings (Eager, 1988).
Settled in S. Wexford along river Barrow & est. own language.
Royal military conquest
1175 Treaty of Windsor - O Conchobair's land to Hugh De Lacy (Bartlett, 2010).
English colonisation a result of Irish disunity (Bartlett, 2010).
King Henry planned major Irish expedition in 1171 (stayed 6 months) (Bartlett, 2010).
Norman decline (1300-1350).
Gaelic-Irish were excluded from: 1) language, 2) customs and 3) law (Bartlett, 2010).
due to Gaelic rejection.
Early C14th = high point of English colonial control (75% was English controlled).
C12th Aristocratic invasion = unfinished but shaped the Irish landscape (Bartlett, 2010).
English farmers (feudal tenure)
English Great Lords
Second wave (see maps)
First wave (see maps)
Gaelic revolt & resurgence : (1350 - 1500).
Bruce inavsion (1315)
Black Death (1348) = demographic disaster (Bartlett, 2010).
English tightening of control = 1366 Statutes of Kilkenny (Bartlett, 2010).
English fortunes epitomised by the conflicting fortunes of Earl of Kildare (Bartlett, 2010). - complex relationship w/ Henry VII.
Outline the geographical dimensions of English imperial expansion in the late twelfth, thirteenth and early fourteenth century Ireland.
divided landscape - the Pale
trade & commercialisation
dependancy & indebtedness
social exclusion of Gaelic Irish (conflict landscape)
English rule (power struggle)
Anglicisation - adopting a "better way of life"
Discuss the extent to which the native, Gaelic Irish were anglicised and incorporated into the English colony in Ireland in the late twelfth, thirteenth and fourteenth centuries (1169-1536).
Anglicisation and incorporation
Plantations & Anglo-Norman towns
Hierarchical landholding system based on feudal patterns.
Social development (conflict landscape).
Exclusion of the Gaelic-Irish (legal, political, social & $ exclusion).
Dependancy & Indebtedness.
Trade & commercialisation.
English rule (power struggle).
Cultural changes .
Anglicised or remained Gaelic?
The Irish landscape underwent drastic changes during the period of Anglicisation in 1169-1536, however many of these changes did not apply to the native Gaelic Irish who were subjected to systematic exclusion and discrimination in this new cultural landscape.
It is important to be careful when making sweeping generalisations about this period as it was subject to many spatio-temporal variations. (e.g. The Pale & periods of Gaelic resurgence).
Background (traditional landscape reading):
Aristocratic colonisation in 1169.
Second wave military colonisation.
Plantations & Anglo-Norman towns/ settlements.
Argument: Whilst the landscape of Ireland 👀 drastic changes associated with anglicisation, in many cases this was not extended to the native, Gaelic Irish who were often excluded and discriminated against.