Progressive Era 1880 - 1920
Progressive Era 1880 - 1920
High shipping rates from the railroads further increased the farmers debt. They needed help, so they joined a group called Patrons of Husbandry or Grange. This group was dedicated to economic reform.
In September 1877 farmers gathered in Lampasas County, Texas to discuss their grievances. This soon grew into a club called Farmers' Alliance. This group tried to reform issues with the farmers like unfair credit practices.
Between the 1870s and 1900s, farmers experienced a period of depression. Crops like cotton went down in price during this depression. Farmers had to borrow money to purchase land and buy more crops during this depression.
There was also the Terrell Election Law which allowed voters more privacy instead of being closely monitored while voting.
The 1902 poll tax was brutal to African Americans and poor whites and if you couldn't afford it, you couldn't vote. Also stuff like bathrooms, water fountains and even schools were segregated.
After one of the worst natural disasters in US history, Galveston had to rebuild the city. THey did this ny electing a mayor and 5 commissioners who each had a government function.
Women decided that this would help society decrease poverty and help grow into a better society, and that made some men mad.
Temperance is the elimination of alcohol
This prohibition was to improve the lives of Americans. One of these groups that was strongly for that was the Women's Christian Temperance Union
In 1920 Texas had the highest literacy rate in the South. Improving qualifications of rural teachers was pretty difficult. Most teachers only had a high school education.
Another law required children ages 8-14 to attend at least 60 days of school. This law was gradually strengthened so that 75% of children school - age attended school.
At most rural schools, 1 teacher taught all the grades. In 1914 Texas legislatures passed a law that had a school district with at least 2 schools for each district. This allowed different grades to have different teachers and schools.
Only a little after this, expansion for railroads rapid fired. This provided 30 million acres of land for construction of railroads. In 1875 there were 1675 miles of railroad in Texas and by the end of that century increased to 10000 miles.
Before 1850, travel was slow and information passed very slowly with only a few roads and railroads. Finally, in the late 1800s, there were railroad lines being built and telephones came into use.
Texas roads also benefited Texas. Roads in US in the late 1800s were poor. Some cities like San Antonio worked to build them. In 1887, they constructed 8 miles in streets and 40 miles in sidewalk. A little after this the invention of streetcars became popular. This led cities to expand and grow by faster speed and travel.
They were also starting to create women's rights groups like the Texas Federation of Woman's Club. They supported the 19th amendment or the right for women to vote
Minnie Fisher Cunningham was involved in this and was president of the Texas Women's Suffrage Association. This organisation wrote letters and did everything that they could to get women the right to vote. This worked and in 1918, they won the right to vote
A factor that caused ]this to begin was a discrimination in women. Women started to be more involved in politics which caused them to demand suffrage, or the right to vote.