'Isms' of the 19th Century
'Isms' of the 19th Century
- Eirene & Joyee
Life is a struggle ruled by "survival of the fittest"
Charles Darwin came up with the idea by observing plants and animals. People then took that idea and applied it to humans.
Herbert Spencer coined the phrase 'survival of the fittest.' The theory was used to justify the idea that white Europeans were the superior race.
The process of natural selection, when applied to humans, results in the survival of the best specimens of the population. The continued survival of the best specimens of the population results in the best population.
Some Darwinists believe that government shouldn't attempt to cure poverty and instead practice a laissez-faire mindset to promote human competition.
Natural Darwinists are anyone who interpret society in terms of biology, struggle, competition or natural selection.
Most people consider Social Darwinism a rejection of compassion.
Used to justify racism, eg- Nazism
a stage of society in Marxist theory transitional between capitalism and communism and distinguished by unequal distribution of goods and pay according to work done
"From each according to his ability, to each according to his contribution." -Vladimir Lenin
Ben & Sai
Types of Socialism
Democratic Socialism: The factors of production are managed by a democratically-elected government.Central planning distributes common goods, such as mass transit, housing, and energy, while the free market is allowed to distribute consumer goods.
Revolutionary Socialism: Socialism will emerge only after capitalism has been destroyed. "There is no peaceful road to socialism." The factors of production are owned by the workers and managed by them through central planning.
Libertarian Socialism: Libertarianism assumes that the basic nature of people is rational, autonomous and self-determining. Once the strictures of capitalism have been removed, people will naturally seek a socialist society that takes care of all. That's because they see it is the best for their own self-interest.
Market Socialism: Production is owned by the workers, who decide how to distribute among themselves. They would sell excess production on the free market. Or, it could be turned over to society at large, which would distribute it according to the free market
Socialism can exist within countries as an overall economic system or within factions thereof such as corporations, healthcare, public education, and education.
People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria
United Republic of Tanzania
Republic of Angola
People’s Republic of Bangladesh
Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
Cooperative Republic of Guyana
Republic of Mozambique
Pros of Socialism
Workers are no longer exploited/profits are equally distributed among them/ basic needs were provided for workers
poverty is eliminated/equal rights and access to free healthcare
no one in the system is forced to do something
Relies on cooperative side of humans
No rewards/recognition is given to the people for accomplishments
leaves country vulnerable to another dictatorship/ absolute ruler
Communism is a political and economic system in which the major productive resources in a society - such as farms, factories, and mines - are all owned by the public or the state. The wealth is divided among the citizens equally or according to individual needs.
Abolition of property in land and application of all rents of lands to public purpose
A heavy progressive and graduated income tax
Abolition of all right of inheritance
Confiscation of the property of all emigrants and rebel
Centralization of credit in the hands of the estate
Centralization of of communication and transport in the hands of the estate
Naail & Zahin
"From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs"
rejected traditional forms of art
artists aimed at the social values of the rich who patronized their work
portrayed people in a realistic way e.g sick people dying
non- conformist art movement
Rue Transnonain, le 15 Avril 1834. Artist: Honoré Daumier
a police officer was killed during a riot in a working-class neighborhood. In retaliation, government forces brutally massacred the residents of the building where the killer was believed to be hiding. In Rue Transnonain, Daumier revealed government excess with an emotionally provocative image showing the aftermath of the government's grossly disproportionate reaction, focused on the corpse of an unarmed civilian lying atop the body of his dead child. This topical, straight-from-the-headlines print denouncing the monarchy participates in Realism's assault on traditional power structures.
Zafa & Li Xian
style of art, movies, plays etc
explored reality of daily life
stimulated by anti- Romanticism. Realist painters replaced the idealistic images and literary conceits of traditional art with real-life events
Established two liberal ideas: economic liberty (meaning the rights to have and use property) and intellectual liberty (the freedom of conscience)
Considered man to be “born free”, and developed the "social contract", a key liberal concept.
Advocated laws, and considered liberty as the only solution for a stable governance
5 Liberal Countries by Rank
Development During the 19th Century
As an ideology and in practice liberalism became the preeminent reform movement in Europe during the 19th century.
The liberal movements varied with the historical conditions in each country—the strength of the crown, the élan of the aristocracy, the pace of industrialization, and the circumstances of national unification. The national character of a liberal movement could even be affected by religion.
Liberalism in Roman Catholic countries such as France, Italy, and Spain, for example, tended to acquire anticlerical overtones
In Great Britain the Whigs had evolved by the mid-19th century into the Liberal Party, whose reformist programs became the model for liberal political parties throughout Europe.
The United States presented a quite different situation, because there was neither a monarchy, an aristocracy, nor an established church against which liberalism could react. Indeed, liberalism was so well established in the United States’ constitutional structure, its political culture, and its jurisprudence that there was no distinct role for a liberal party to play, at least not until the 20th century.
: a political ideology founded on ideas of liberty and equality.
The individual comes first, liberty, freedoms, rights optimistic view of humanity, belief in progress, gradual and steady change
Types of Liberalism
- argues that the only real freedom is "freedom from coercion", and that the state intervention in the economy is a coercive power that restricts the economic freedom of individuals. It favours the Laissez-Faire policy.
- argues that governments must take an active role in promoting the freedom of citizens. Real freedom can only exist when citizens are healthy, educated, and free from dire property.
- a variant of liberalism that represents the right-wing of the Liberal movement, which combines the liberal values and policies with conservative stances.
- a program of reducing trade barriers and internal market restrictions, while using government power to enforce the opening of foreign markets.
- a liberal view of society that stresses the freedom of individuals from cultural norms, and allowed them to practice their own culture.
Zhi Wen & Daniel
Effects Throughout History
Liberation from imperialism
Rise of extremism
Competition between nations
TYPES OF NATIONALISM
Romantic Nationalism: State derives political legitimacy as a natural consequence and expression of a nation
Civic Nationalism: derives from any political legitimacy and focuses on active participation on the citizens
Religious Nationalism: defines the nation in terms of share religion including culture, ethnicity, and language. It is adherence to religious doctrines
State Nationalism: it varies with civic nationalism whereby that the nation is a community that contributes to the strength and maintanence of a state and individuals exist to contribute tot his goal
Figures Of Nationalism
A sense of loyalty and devotion towards one's country
Putting one's nation above the rest
Feeling of superiority over other countries
Imperialism - Natalie, Eda, Sue Jean & Tasia
The New Imperialist Age of the 19th century : Factors
Humanitarian goals: Rudyard Kipling (1865–1936) in his famous poem, “The White Man’s Burden” expressed this mission in the 1890s
when he prodded Europeans to take up “their moral obligation” to civilize the uncivilized.
Politic/Mliltary: Leading European nations felt that colonies were crucial to military power, national security, and nationalism. Naval vessels needed military bases around the world to take on coal and supplies. Islands or harbors were seized to satisfy
Economy: The need for cheap labour and steady supply of raw materials from unexplored regions
Social Darwinism: fostered imperialistic expansion by proposing that some people were more fit (advanced) than others. The Europeans believed that they, as the white race, were dominant and that it was only natural for them to conquer the “inferior” people as nature’s way of improving mankind.
Imperialism is understood as a policy of a country in which that said country influences other countries or territories through military force, as well as other means of power.
In the 1800s China simultaneously experiences major internal strains and Western imperialist pressure, backed by military might which China cannot match. (ex. Opium War)
Commodore Matthew Perry: convinced the shogun, to open ports for trade with the United States.
Fearful of domination by foreign countries, Japan, unlike China, reversed its policy of isolation and began to modernize by borrowing from the West: The Meiji Restoration
Africa was known as the Dark Continent and remained unknown to the outside world until the late nineteenth
century because its interior that discouraged exploration. Britain’s
occupation of Egypt and Belgium’s penetration of the Congo started the race for colonial possessions in Africa.
The belief that nothing really matters.
Inspired and intrigued many artists on their values, morals, and instead of attempting to answer the question, "Why", people wondered about whether their existence had any meaning at all
Feelings of despair, sadness and gloom gave way to anti-foundationalism, or the belief that there should be no central governing power. Have led to many people using destruction and violence as a method of reform in the 19th and 20th centuries
Nietzsche himself was afraid of the power of nihilistic ideals and their ability to ultimately destroy society
Other forms of nihilism
Objects with proper parts do not exist, but only basic building blocks exist. thus the world we see is human misperception
Moral nihilist believe that any action is neither wrong or right
A form of skepticism that states all knowledge could be untrue or proven wrong
Philosophical proposition that concrete objects and physical constructs do not exist in the possible world
Existential Nihilists believed that life
had no meaning or real value in it
Believed that society would eventually find a way to work through Nihilism - through terrible sacrifice - and after that, would find the correct world
Kiefer and Jason
Have you ever heard of the tragedy of Darth Plagueis the Wise?