UNIT 4: 3D design and printing (1.Product design (a)When we design…
UNIT 4: 3D design and printing
a)When we design anything, we start with a sketch to which we add detail and measurements.
b)We create volume by drawing it in perspective and adding measurements.
If we want to build or print an object, we can start with a design created by somebody and improve or adapt it, or maybe create our own design.
c)We do the drawing on a computer using a tool for three dimensional printing.
2.Sketches, diagrams and technical drawings
A sketch is a quick drawing that transmits the general idea of an object or concept. Sketches are done freehand.They do not show a lot of details. They do not have dimensions and we do not have to draw them to scale.
The final drawing is called a technical drawing and it is done using drawing materials. Technical drawings are done to scale and have measurements. Technical drawings indicate the details of the object. We do them in pencil and then go over them with a fine-line pen.
A diagram is more detailed than a sketch. It is also done freehand but more details are added. They must be in proportion to the size of the object and they must have the necessary notes to complete the information about the drawing.
Whenever we do a drawing, we have to include the real measurements of the object that we are representing.
Standardisation is the set of standards that regulates every element of technical drawing.
5.Types of lines. Dimensioning
Dimension line end points
If there is space, 15° arrowheads are added to the ends; otherwise, 45° lines or dots are used.
Auxiliary dimension lines
These lines protrude about 2 mm and are used to delimit the dimension lines accurately. They must be at least 8 mm from the edge of the figure.
These should be standardised and expressed in mm.
These are used to indicate measurements and are drawn parallel to the line that they measure.
It is the view of the figure from overhead.
Left or right elevation
It is the view from the left- or right-hand side of the figure.
It is the main primary view; it is always the most representative face of the object. We can indicate it with an arrow.
7.Representing objects in perspective
The X and Z axes are drawn with a 90° angle of separation. The Y axis is drawn at an angle of 135º to the other two.
As the name suggests, we draw all three axes separated by the same angle: 120º
8.Drawing a figure in perspective using views
2.Draw each plane on its axis with the relevant measurements
3.Draw lines parallel to the edges of the figure.
1.Mark the measurements of each face on the axes. Draw parallel lines
4.Erase the auxiliary lines and go over the visible edges again.
A 3D printer is a machine that can print figures with volume from a computer design.
The technology used by domestic 3D printers is fused filament fabrication (FFF).
10.3D printing process
First of all, we design the part that we want to print. We can use any graphic design program for this
Slicing programs translate the STL file into GCODE format, which is the format that the printer understands.
Slicing programs determine how many layers of plastic are needed to make the designed part and the order that they should be created in.
The GCODE file generated during slicing is copied to a memory card that is inserted in the 3D printer.
11.Design and printing programs
Programs for the design of parts
Others: OpenSCAD, Blender, FreeCAD, AutoCAD, etc.
Slicing and printing control programs
Control the movements and temperatures of the printer from our computers.
View and even make small changes to our STL parts, e.g. scale and rotate them or divide them into sections to print them in several parts.
Use the slicing programs that it includes, such as Slic3r, which "slices" up the virtual model into layers and calculates the printing strategy by generating supports, configuring the layer height, fills, perimeters, etc.
Generate the GCODE file and run it from our computer or save it on the SD card.
12.Preparing the printer
2.After this, we need to download the slicing and control software and follow the steps during installation.
3.We then need to load the print parameters in Repetier-Host. Note: the first time you open Repetier-Host, you will need to load the slic3r settings file
Click on the Slic3r tab on the right and then on the Configuration button.
Go to File / Load Config Bundle and select the .ini settings file
1.If we want to connect the printer directly to our computer, we will need to install the drivers. This is not an essential step and it can be done at any time; we can also dump the GCODE on to the SD card. The drivers should be provided by the manufacturer.
4.Lastly, configure Repetier-Host with the printer parameters provided by the manufacturer