Globalization & Internationalization
Keep up with the growth in specialized Knowledge
Control market share
substantial fiscal resources
reputation for academic excellence
Education has become the first aid for a technological society. "New managerial technologies make it possible to supervise outcomes rather than task performance." (Mitchell & Nielsen. pg. 14).
EMI (English as medium of instruction)
Connect people together by speaking one universal language.
Help new generations to study abroad where English is the main language of instruction.
English considered one of the easiest languages to learn.
Most of the top 100 universities use English as the main language.
By implementing EMI, students lose their opportunities to strengthen their proficiency of their first language and cultivate their national identity
Student may not be able to deepen their understanding of subjects
Students who could not afford English education lose their opportunities to pursue education
Instructors cannot teach anymore because their English proficiency is not high to teach a subject. = wasting human resources.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).
University of Cambridge.
California Institute of Technology.
University of Oxford.
UCL (University College London).
ETH Zurich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology).
Imperial College London.
University of Chicago.
Motivation at National Level
Human Resources Development & Brain Power
Social and Cultural Development
E.g.) Fulbright, SACM, BSMP etc...
Approach to Internationalization at the National Level
Ex) Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs
Although those intentions behind internationalization initiatives are admirable, intentions are not purely building relationships and educating youth.For example, by educating people from different nations, they exporting their values and culture to other countries.
=The development of Transportation
More attentions on transportation & Technology
Single place and it is for everyone (Tomlison, 1999)
Compacted world where time and space are compressed (Robertson)
Institutions in HE are seen as at the center of this compressed world.
-New ways of thinking regarding time and space.
Entrepreneurial institutions: Capitalize on the shrinking geography
Less entrepreneurial ones: pressured to adapt and respond
Interaction Process View
Tends to give priority to innovations in communication.
Connectivity among people around the world, and interdependence (economic, social, cultural, political, environmental, scientific and technology)
Globalization ---> Higher Education
Social Process Transformation Perspective
Changed education into an exchangeable product in an open market.
liberali arts core ----> entrepreneurial periphery
the rise of research commercialization ---> allows institutions to be able to compete to benefit their institutions.
Knowledge ---> Commodity ---> Symbolic status & power resources --->encouraged to internationalize and recruit faculty and students to gain them.
Social and Cultural Perspective
It is critical for governments to reconsider "how their public finance mechanisms promote fairness in college access and social uplift" (John, 2013)
"Nation should find better blends of financial mechanisms"
---> Expand access to S&T programs
improve opportunities for advanced education
!: Monitor outcomes in relation to financing mechanisms
By hosting international students, "400,000 jobs to the U.S. economy during the 2015-2016 academic year." (
International Student Services
Marketing & Recruitment
International Student Advising
Sponsored Student Program Administration
Faculty & Scholar Services
Study Abroad Advising
Campus Relations Coordination
Student Support - RA/RD
Study Abroad Advising
Some people go in this field expecting to travel frequently,
but most of the jobs requires processing documents
Other Functional Areas
Student Conduct and Community Standards
Student Leadership and Involvement
Multiple non-University Careers
They "have unique set of experiences due in part to their role as sojourners or temporary residents
"[T]ransition is viewed as a change in behaviors or relationships in response to an event or non-event which affects one;s beliefs about oneself or the world"
(Kim, 2012. p. 103)
4S's (Situation, Self, Support, and Strategies)
The Crisis or Cultural Shock Stage
The Adjustment or Recovery Stage
The Adaptation Stage
International Student Identity (ISI) Model
Third Culture Kids (TCKs)
"[A] person who has spent a significant part of his or her developmental years outside of the parents' culture. "
"The TCK builds relationships to all of the cultures, while not having full ownership of any"
They tend to cultivate the sense of belonging wth people who shares similar relationships.
(As cited in Holmes, 2013)
Challenges they face
Selecting a college
question their identity
challenge building relationships
challenge creating sense of belonging
Sense of mattering ---> contribute students to succeed
Sense of marginality---> influence students' experience negatively
TCK Intervention by McDonald
"[I]t is important to make a sincere effort to understand the context in which these students operate, rather than engaging with these students based on some preconceived prototype" (as cited in Holmes, 2013)
to show "genuine interest in the TCK lifestyles and using relevant terminology such as 'transcultural' and ' global nomad' when interacting with them.
Institutions should be mindful of creating opportunities for TCK students to be able to connect other TCK students and international students.
Students' involvement in the classroom and on campus influence their college experience
Although there are some schools more focused on local community, the words "Globalization/Internationalization" appears in mission/value/strategic plans. However, it does not illustrated in depths how the institutions will achieve it in depths.
Competitions Between Institutions
Top 10 Universities in The World