identify competitors （竞争对手产品，产品替代品，通用竞争对手和潜在新进者）; 审核其能力; 分析其目标，战略重点和战略; 并估计竞争对手的反应模式。
audit their capabilities
analyze their objectives strategic thrust and strategies;
estimate competitor response patterns.
objective is to create and maintain a distinctive place in the market for a company and/or its products.
four keys to successful positioning
clarity, consistency, credibility and competitiveness.
determining the position of a brand in the marketplace is the perceptual map.
based on a clear choice of target market based on market segment attractiveness and company capability, and the creation of a differential advantage (based on an understanding of the attributes—choice criteria—that consumers use when choosing between brands).
to the product and/or target market.
image repositioning, product repositioning, intangible repositioning and tangible repositioning.
degree of rivalry between competitors, the threat of new entrants, the bargaining power of suppliers and buyers, and the threat of substitute products.
the choice of target market (where to compete) 目标市场的选择（竞争对手）
the creation of a differential advantage (how to compete).