- hypha (pl. hyphae) elongated filaments, which may branch
a. may penetrate substance/tissue they grow on; or
b. aerial hyphae - grow away from surface = velvety appearance
- mycelium interconnected hyphae network
- unicellular, spherical or egg shaped bodies.
- site of infection
d. deep ("systemic" involve tissue/organs) 2. route of acquisition
a. endogenous (commensals)
b. exogenous (e.g. inhalation, through skin scratches / punctures)
- level of virulence
a. Opportunistic ie. low virulence / immunodeficiency
b. high virulence ie. cause disease in hosts w/- normal immune system
- onycho = nail
- mycosis = fungal infection)
- [aka mycotic mycetomas, eumycetomas, eumycotic
mycetomas or maduromycosis, madura foot (in India)]
- distinct from often clinically indistinguishable infections
caused by certain bacteria – actinomycotic mycetomas.
- Caused by many different fungal genera. World wide species in genus Madurella are the most common.
- Trichophyton spp.
- Microsporum spp.
- Epidermophyton floccosum
(only one species)
150 species. 10 pathogenic to humans.
- environmental fungus Sporothrix schenckii.
- Infections w/- indistinguishible appearance ("sporotrichoid")
may be caused by:
a. other fungi
b. Bacteria (Nocarda (e.g. N. brasiliensis) / Mycobacterium marinum
(exist as either growth condition dependent