Pseudo reading (up to 6) - still read to by caregivers, may imitate reading process by turning pages and pretending to read, create stories from pictures, may identify some letters.
Initial reading and decoding (6-7) - begin to decode words to read and understand, may identify familiar whole words, may recognise letters or blend sounds to sound out, reading process slow, can hamper understanding of the text as a whole.
Confirmation and fluency (7-8) - faster process, able to decode words more readily, read with some fluency, greater sense of the text as a whole. Reading for learning (9-13) - read in order to learn, may be accessing a wider range of texts, reading to obtain facts, scanning for relevant details. Multiple viewpoints (14-18) - begin to recognise how meaning can be conveyed in different ways, more critical readers, recognising bias and inference.
Construction and reconstruction (18+) - read a range of sources and synthesise these to develop own interpretations, can skim and scan efficiently, can recognise what is important to read.