CHAPTER 2 : WATER MANAGEMENT
CHAPTER 2 : WATER MANAGEMENT
ways clean water can change the world
Gender equality & increase school attendance
Increase healthy food
Improve impoverished communities
Reduce deaths and disease
Improves water supply, sanitations & hygiene
Climate change impact
To prepare for a drought.
To save money. Lower consumption means lower water bills.
To keep rates low. Maximizing current water supplies helps defer the need to develop new and more expensive sources of water.
To comply with regulations. Many states and local regulators have established efficient water use regulations.
It is a resource that is a benefit to everyone.
storage of potable water
Johor's Linggiu Reservoir
Batu Dam, Selangor
Bakun Dam, Sabah
Also called drinking water, in a reference to its intended use
Water may be naturally potable, as is the case with pristine springs, or it may need to be treated in order to be safe
water which is fit for consumption by humans and other animals
In either instance, the safety of water is assessed with tests which look for potentially harmful contaminants
Baseline information on water use can be used to set goals and to develop specific water use efficiency measures.
Monitoring also raises awareness
Provides baseline information on quantities of overall household water use, the seasonal and monthly patterns of water use
Records of meter readings can be used to identify changes in water use rates and possible problems in a system
Meters that are used to measure large volumes of water may be too large for a customer's level of use and will tend to under-register water use.
A Meter testing, calibration, repair, and replacement program needs to be established.
All meters, especially older meters, should be tested for accuracy on a regular basis.
Water meters can be damaged and deteriorate with age, thus producing inaccurate readings.
Repairing leaks saves money on water bills.
-The early detection of leaks also reduces the chances that leaks will cause major property damage.
Leak detection strategy needs to employ regular on-site testing methods for detecting leaks along water distribution mains, valves, services, and meters.
Leak detection programs are especially important in facilities that have large, old, deteriorating systems.
Visual inspection program
-This may include pipe inspection, cleaning, lining, and other maintenance efforts to improve the distribution system and prevent leaks and ruptures from occurring.
Reused water can also be used in landscape irrigation, agricultural irrigation, aesthetic uses such as fountains, and fire protection.
Some potential applications include:
-industrial uses in cooling water at power plants and oil refineries
-industrial process water for paper mills and carpet dyers
-toilet flushing; dust control
-construction activities; concrete mixing
Water reuse is the use of wastewater or reclaimed water (sometimes called “graywater”) from one application for another application.
safe drinking water
National Standard for Drinking Water Quality (2000, revised 2004)
Development and the implementation of Water Safety Plan (WSP) for the nation (2012)
Incorporate a strategy to improve drinking water wholesomeness throughout the drinking water supply chain.
Water recycling is the reuse of water for the same application for which it was originally used.
Factors that should be considered in a water recycling program include:
-Identification of water reuse opportunities
-Evaluation of the minimum water quality needed for a particular use
-Evaluation of water quality degradation resulting from the use
-Determination of the treatment steps.
types of practice for successful conservation
Engineering practices: practices based on modifications in plumbing, fixtures, or water supply operating procedures.
Behavioral practices: practices based on changing water use habits.