CHAPTER 1 : WASTE MANAGEMENT
CHAPTER 1 : WASTE MANAGEMENT
types of wastes
Non-hazardous solid waste
Compostable organic waste (e.g. food, animal bedding, biodegradable plastics)
Hazardous Biological Waste:
waste containing or contaminated with an infectious or potentially infectious agent, a biological toxin, an animal carcass, a genetically modified organism, recombinant DNA
Recyclable material (e.g., paper, soda cans)
Hazardous Chemical Waste:
products which are chemical in nature (cleaning agents, paint, motor oil, & pharmaceutics)
products that contain chemicals (fluorescent lamps, thermometers)
materials contaminated with chemicals (contaminated soil or rags)
Otherwise Regulated Material
e.g. asbestos, car batteries, contaminated soil and construction debris
Hazardous Radioactive Waste:
waste containing or contaminated with a radioactive isotope
Basic Concept of Waste Management
Improperly stored wastes can cause health, safety and economic problems
Prevent damaging the Earth’s ecosystems
the aesthetic value of a better outlook & a clean physical environment is important for our emotional wellbeing.
Maintain a high quality of life for the planet’s inhabitants
Isolate waste from humans and the environment, & consequently, safeguard individual, family & community health.
Main components of waste management
Temporary storage (on site storage)
Final disposal site
Treatment facility or technology
Final disposal offsite (away from waste generation site)
polluter pays principle:
this means that the polluter
should bear the full cost of the consequences of their
waste should be treated or disposed of as near as possible to the point where it arises.
waste hierarchy principle:
the most commonly known.
This principle provides a framework for waste disposal
this involves taking
precautions now to avoid possible environmental
damage in the future
why manage waste
'changed' properties & characteristics as 'products' they are not readily acceptable to the environment
Since environment cannot assimilate their current form, their entry into is simply perceived as pollution.
The main purpose of waste management is to isolate waste from humans and the environment, and protect human health.
The Environmental Quality (Scheduled Waste) Regulations, 2005
Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management Act, 2007 (Act 672)
Environmental Quality Act, 1974
what is waste?
Waste are substances or objects, which are disposed of or are intended to be disposed of or are required to be disposed of by the provisions of national law
Any substance which is discarded after primary use, or it is worthless, defective and of no use.
category depending on its physical state
includes human waste, runoff (storm water or flood water), sullage, industrial wastewater and other forms of wastewater from different sources
sewage, sullage, black water, grey water, runoff
any waste that is dry in form and is discarded by people as unwanted