History Paper 1: Who Won The Cuban Missile Crisis? Pt 1 (The Bay of Pigs…
History Paper 1: Who Won The Cuban Missile Crisis? Pt 1
The Arms Race
Hydrogen bomb (H-bomb) - American developed the H-bomb (1952) which was capable of destroying Moscow. Within a year Russia had developed a similar bomb
Intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) - both sides had ICBMs which could fire a nuclear warhead several thousand kilometres. By 1960 the missiles could even be fired from nuclear submarines under the sea
By 1949 BOTH the USA and Russia had nuclear weapons
The Bay of Pigs Invasion
No popular uprising to support the invasion
Those exiles not killed were quickly taken captive
1400 exiles landed in Cuba, but found themselves facing 20,000 Cuban troops
America wasn't directly involved in the invasion, but it was clear to Castro and Khrushchev (Russian leader) it had been planned by the CIA
Exiles received military training, weapons and transport from the American CIA
The invasion failed and JFK had been humiliated!
April 1961 - JFK decided to support an invasion by the 'Cuban exiles'
American response to the change of leadership in Cuba
January 1961 - American broke off diplomatic relations with Cuba
Aim = Starve Castro into submission. Actual result = Pushed Castro closer to the Soviet Union!
Summer 1960 - America stopped buying Cuban sugar and then later in the year banned all trade with Cuba
Batista - Americans helped him to establish himself in power in Cuba (1934) as he was anti-Communist. His government was corrupt and repressive
Castro - Overthrew Batista (1959)
American interests in Cuba - naval base at Guantanamo and US companies invested in Cuban industry.
In 1959 Castro overthrew Batista. Proposed reforms to improve the economy, appointed Communists to his government and signed a trade agreement with the Soviet Union (Cuban sugar for machinery, oil and economic aid)
Missiles discovered on Cuba
14 October 1962 - a US U-2 spy plane flew over Cuba and took pictures of what looked like missile sites being built
A fleet of Soviet ships was sailing to Cuba - presumably carrying more missiles for the new sites