Global development - Theories
Global development - Theories
is actually the best way for developing countries to
achieve economic growth and to develop
. Wealth created through this would then later be distributed under
argued that obstacles to development are
as the developing world s forced to depend on the developed world.
This is supported by
'They train you to be paralysed to they can sell you the crutches'
. This is linked to the Marxist idea of
Origins of dependency:
The take over and exploitation of countries, usually through military force.
-Harrison**- British imperial expansion was the greatest transformation the human world has ever seen
argued that we can still see forms of exploitation today, he referred to these as
Developed world create unfair trading relationships which only benefit the west.
- Raw materials=false riches, as countries need to produce more and more to receive the same amount of payment.
Use developing countries to exploit workers as they have little choice or say in what happens (e.g. low pay, terrible conditions, long hours) -
- TNC's are institutional psychopaths- they exploit and dehumanise people for profit
Creates debt, creating more dependency. -
- Aid s a form of neo-colonialism as about
75% of British aid is tied
(have to spend it on UK produce)
Timmons-Roberts & Hite
claimed that the solution was for developing countries to break away from dependency.
One way to do this is
, e.g. North Korea
was pessimistic about his as he believed that the world capitalist system would reassert its force, e.g. Cuba tried to break away in 1960's and until 2015 they were denied access to free world trade and received threats of military force
Therefore, dependency theory
offers no solution
Despite economic growth through aid the Asian tiger countries are in debt and have shown economic instability (e.g. in Japan only top 10% benefited from the rapid economic growth)
Has helped developing countries break away from explotation
Looks at why and how some countries are exploited, e.g.
focused on the role of corrupt elites
Western aid and TNC's brng benefits to help development, e.g. Asian tiger countries
argued that colonialism was not a bad thing as it created basic infrastructure, provided people with wage labour and made efficient use of land.
To develop countries must become "more modern" by becoming like the west and
adopting western values
They believe that development means
Obstacles to development are
, such as: war, natural disasters, government corruption, increasing population, traditional views, child labour etc.
suggested that developing countries could achieve development through
capitalist, economic growth.
He wrote 'a non-communist manifesto' in which he described communism as a disease.
suggested that development should be seen as an evolutionary process in whch countries progress up a developkment ladder of
Stage 1- The Tradtional Society
Stage 2- Pre-conditions for Take Off
Stage 3- Take Off
Stage 4- The drive to Maturity
Stage 5- High Mass Consumtion
claims that Rostow places too much focus on economic obstacles and ignores cultural factors. He believed that
cultural factors are more important
and that lack of development is caused by internal factors such as
e.g. religion needs to turn into secularisation, the patriarchy needs to turn into equality, collectivism needs to turn into, ascribed status turns into achieved status etc.
Further cultural changes needed:
Agriculture and industry
- ignores the
crisis of modernism
Ignores external factors
Issues with aid (tied aid, loans, corrupt government)
Lots of money spent but poverty still exists; e.g. an average African household consumes
20% less than 30 years ago
not all societies develop through fixed stages
Recognises issues and aims to provide a solution
Influential (still influences development policies)
helped raise awareness of poverty and created a moral, compassionate force of people willing to help
Communism proved to be less successful in achieving development (e.g. Mao in China)
recognised it would take time (e.g. Asian tiger countries)
also claimed that there are essential social and cultural components that need to be considered:
creates a better workforce through role allocation, skills provision and socialisation, spreads western values etc.
gives social control over public, advertising, increases consumerism etc.
family changes from unit of production to unit of consumption, increase in jobs and education,
the city is the nucleus for cultural penetration
World Systems Theory
developed from dependency theory
and shares a lot of the same views on developing countries and their dependency on the west.
argues that eventually a
communist world economy would arise
and this is the solution to the global 'modern world system'.
This is another difference between dependency theory and WST, as WST
offers a solution
However, WST emerged to adress the
of dependency theory.
is the key WST sociologist and he has claimed dependency theory needs to be updated in several ways.
While dependency theory focuses on the experience of individuals WST focuses on the
modern world system
, which is the idea that the world is a single, unified, capitalist system.
Therefore, developing countries are not
by individual countries but by the
, this is why developing countries don't develop.
Dependancy theory identified the 'core' which included developed countries and the 'periphery' which included the developing countries. However, WST argues this is too simple, and there is also a
, which is countries that have some wealth and some poverty. Meaning some countries are more exploited than others.
Dependancy theory is static as the core and the periphery stay the same. However, WST is more dynamic and recognises that
countries are social mobile
and can move in the
'modern world system'
Neoliberal theory stems from the
They believe that obstacles to development are
They believe that the Capitalist free market works freely without restrictions then capitalism will generate wealth.
argues that countries should follow
'trade not aid'
in order to develop.
He claimed that if we increase trade by
across the world it would generate an extra
$350 billion worldwide
= corrupt government. This is one issue that Bauer found with aid.
Modernisation theory would criticise-prefer aid not trade.
It ignores benefit of aid
Ignores impact of
After 30 years of Neoliberal policies development has been slow
The Theory Impasse
A situation in which no progress is possible
Causes for the Theory Impasse:
- Communism is an unrealistic solution
- Provides no solution
- Over 70 years of giving aid & poverty has gotten worse. Ethnocentric. Can't explain failure of development
- Trade is a lot more fair now. More development occurred before NLT policies.
- outdated - the world has changed. Environmentalism - assume that development meant industrialisation
Since the theory impasse, new approaches began to affect development practice:
People Centred Development & Environmentalism
People-centred development & Environmentalism:
Usually run by NGO's
Small scale and involve the local people & communities
Development should be based on sustainability, local participation, improving justice & meeting peoples basic needs
criticises the idea of development being based on the Western, ethnocentric idea of 'west is best'.
Other theories fail to realise that they are dealing with real people and denies them the oppertunity to make their own choices.