Inhalational and Intravenous Anesthesia ( Nitrous oxide (does not depress…
Inhalational and Intravenous Anesthesia
ability to provide sedation without causing respiratory depression.
:no_entry:Like clonidine, its mechanism of action is agonism of α2 receptors in certain parts of the brain.
sedative, analgesic, sympatholytic, and anxiolytic medication.
possesses both anesthetic and analgesic properties.
short-acting, nonbarbiturate anesthetic
:check:decrease in plasma cortisol and aldosterone levels, due to inhibition of 11-β-hydroxylase
hypnotic agent but has no analgesic effects.
does not depress respiration, and it does not produce muscle relaxation, has no effect on the cardiovascular ,
second gas effect.
poorly soluble in blood
potent analgesic but a weak general anesthetic.
metabolized by the liver may cause nephrotoxic
low pungency, allowing rapid induction without irritating the airway,
Like isoflurane, it decreases vascular resistance and irritating
very rapid onset and recovery due to its low blood solubility. + low volatility
little metabolism - not induce cardiac arrhythmias and - not sensitize the heart to the action of catecholamines.
It has a pungent odor and stimulates respiratory reflexes
cause hypotension due to peripheral vasodilation.
Thiopental and methohexital
midazolam, diazepam and lorazepam
have very steep dose-response curves with a very narrow therapeutic index.
No antagonists exist.
is vagomimetic and causes atropine-sensitive bradycardia- causing cardiac arrhythmias.
The toxic reaction of halothane begins as a fever, followed by anorexia, nausea, and vomiting, and patients may exhibit signs of hepatitis
not repeated at intervals of less than 2 to 3 weeks.
is oxidatively metabolized in the body to
tissue-toxic hydrocarbons (e.g., trifluoroethanol) and bromide ion,
potent bronchodilator and it relaxes both skeletal and uterine muscle,
coadministered with nitrous oxide, opioids, or local anesthetics.
potent anesthetic but a relatively weak analgesic.
that include the gas nitrous oxide and volatile, halogenated hydrocarbons.