Inhalational and Intravenous Anesthesia ( Nitrous oxide ( potent…
Inhalational and Intravenous Anesthesia
that include the gas nitrous oxide and volatile, halogenated hydrocarbons.
potent anesthetic but a relatively weak analgesic.
coadministered with nitrous oxide, opioids, or local anesthetics.
potent bronchodilator and it relaxes both skeletal and uterine muscle,
is oxidatively metabolized in the body to
tissue-toxic hydrocarbons (e.g., trifluoroethanol) and bromide ion,
not repeated at intervals of less than 2 to 3 weeks.
The toxic reaction of halothane begins as a fever, followed by anorexia, nausea, and vomiting, and patients may exhibit signs of hepatitis
is vagomimetic and causes atropine-sensitive bradycardia- causing cardiac arrhythmias.
No antagonists exist.
have very steep dose-response curves with a very narrow therapeutic index.
midazolam, diazepam and lorazepam
Thiopental and methohexital
cause hypotension due to peripheral vasodilation.
It has a pungent odor and stimulates respiratory reflexes
little metabolism - not induce cardiac arrhythmias and - not sensitize the heart to the action of catecholamines.
very rapid onset and recovery due to its low blood solubility. + low volatility
Like isoflurane, it decreases vascular resistance and irritating
low pungency, allowing rapid induction without irritating the airway,
metabolized by the liver may cause nephrotoxic
potent analgesic but a weak general anesthetic.
poorly soluble in blood
second gas effect.
does not depress respiration, and it does not produce muscle relaxation, has no effect on the cardiovascular ,
hypnotic agent but has no analgesic effects.
:check:decrease in plasma cortisol and aldosterone levels, due to inhibition of 11-β-hydroxylase
short-acting, nonbarbiturate anesthetic
possesses both anesthetic and analgesic properties.
sedative, analgesic, sympatholytic, and anxiolytic medication.
:no_entry:Like clonidine, its mechanism of action is agonism of α2 receptors in certain parts of the brain.
ability to provide sedation without causing respiratory depression.