Otzi's equipment and clothing
Otzi's equipment and clothing
Longbow, arrows and quiver
Ötzi carried a 1.82 m-long stave made from yew, which showed clear signs of workmanship.
to kill form a long distance
The quiver and its contents
Ötzi carried a quiver made from deer hide for his arrows. A hazel rod supported the long, narrow quiver, to make it easier to carry on his shoulder.
The blade consists of 99.7% pure copper and is trapezoidal in shape. The knee haft is made from yew and is approx 60 cm long. birch tar and is tightly bound with leather straps to hold it firmly in place used as a handle.
the copper axe is used to kill a living creature for or a tree for a fire
The dagger has a flint blade and an ash wood handle. Ötzi’s dagger is the only fully preserved dagger from the Copper Age.and bound with animal sinew. A string was attached to the end of the handle. The 12 cm sheath is made from lime tree bast.
a secondary weapon when his copper axe is out of reach
made from the stripped branch of a lime tree and sharpened like a pencil. A black “lead” protrudes from the sharpened end. This was identified as a fragment from a fire-hardened deer antler.
to sharpen flint blades
Two birch-bark containers were found near the mummy. They were made from a single piece of bark and stitched together with lime tree bast. The round piece of birch bark, which served as the base, was also stitched on. The interior of one of the vessels was blackened and contained freshly picked Norway maple leaves and charcoal fragments. It is assumed that Ötzi wrapped charcoal embers in the leaves and carried them in the birch-bark container. In this way, the embers could be kept for several hours and fanned into fire in a few seconds. Birch-bark containers are extremely light and robust. They are still made today in some parts of the world, for example in nearby Trentino, where knowledge of how to make them has survived as a traditional local craft.
Ötzi’s wooden backpack. The wooden backpack probably included a hide sack or net in which to carry his worldly goods.
A U-shaped hazel rod (approx. 2 m long) and two narrow wooden boards (38-40 cm long) are the only surviving parts of Ötzi’s backpack. The wooden boards and the hazel rod were probably tied together with string, and a hide sack or net was attached to the frame. Backpacks made of wood have a long tradition in the Alps. They were used to transport firewood, for instance.
used in bird hunting
A stone disc made of Dolomite marble has a hole in the middle through which a tassel of narrow twisted hide strips is threaded. Has been identified as a bird belt. birds that have been killed are hung by the head from a loop on a belt.
Also part of Ötzi’s equipment were two pieces of birch polypore (birch fungus), It is assumed that the fungus had therapeutic purposes
Hide coat and grass mat
Ötzi’s hide coat reached almost down to his knees, covering his upper body and thighs. The coat was made from light and dark strips of goat and sheep hide stitched together with animal sinews. Ötzi wore the coat with the fur on the outside. Since no fasteners were found, the coat was probably held closed with a belt.
Grass cape or mat
Remnants of a woven grass mat were found during examination of the excavation site. The mat, made from alpine swamp grass, was initially thought to be a grass cape. This interpretation is now highly debatable, and today it’s believed that it was more likely to be a mat which Ötzi used to protect himself from the rain, or it was part of a backpack.
Leggings, loincloth and belt
Ötzi’s “trousers” consisted of two separate leggings. They were made from strips of domestic goat and sheep hide. The tops of the leggings were reinforced with leather strips and were knotted onto the belt with an additional leather strip. At the bottom of the leggings were loops that were fastened to the shoes. The leggings had been worn for some time and had been repaired in several places.
Ötzi wore a loincloth made from narrow strips of sheep hide stitched together. originally it was a piece of hide worn between the legs and fastened with the belt.
Belt with sewn-on pouch
The belt consisted of a calfskin strip 4 to 5 cm wide. It was probably around 2 metres in length and would have been wrapped twice around the hips.
Shoes and bearskin cap
Ötzi’s shoes and cap protected him from the cold.
The soles of the shoes were made from bearskin, the outer shoes of deer hide. The cap was held in place with a chin strap.
The bearskin cap
A bearskin cap was uncovered during the archaeologic excavation. Pieces of bearskin had been stitched together to form a hemispherical shape. A chin strap held the cap in place.
Otzi's homeland and the scientific methods