Memory - 1 (The Multi-store Memory Model (Sensory register:
Memory - 1
The Working Memory Model
This is a model of STM, which suggests that STM is an active multicomponent store rather than the passive single store like in the multi-store model
(PAS & AP).....(VC & IS)
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LONG TERM MEMERORY
Centeral executive(CE) - Controls what sensory information is attended to and enters STM. Has no storage capacity and can only attended to one piece of info. at a time. Passes on info. to appropriate slave system for processing. Recieves processed info. back and passes to episodic buffer
Phonological loop(PL) - Processes auditory info. Subdivided into:
-Primary acoustic store- which sores auditory info.
-Articulation process- which keeps info in the PL through sub-vocal repetition (rehearsal)
Visuospacial sketchpad(VSS) - Processes visual and spacial info. suggested subdivisions:
-Visual cache- which stores info about form and colour
-Inner scribe- which deals with info. about spacial relationships
(has limited capacity)
Episodic buffer(EB)- Since CE has no storage capacity and the other slave systems have very little, the EB is needed to temporarily store info. combined together from the other parts of this model. It also passes the processes info. to LTM to be stored
+Baddeley: -Found ppts struggled to carry out two simultaneous and complex tasks, this supports the idea that the CE has limited capacity and so can only cope with one task at a time
Types of LTM
- Type of explicit memory, contains all the knowledge we have learned, strength of these memorises is influenced by the degree of processing at coding
- E.g. all knowledge like facts and meanings
- + Vicari - found 8 year old girl with brain damage had difficulties in creating new episodic memories but not semantic memories,suggesting separate systems exist
- -May involve more of a network of links across the brain rather than a single form of memory ability
- Type of Explicit (conscious/intentional) memory, an autobiographical record of personal experiences, strength of these memories is influenced by emotions associated with the experience and the degree of processing when coding, they may help to distinguish between real & imagined events.
- E.g. the circumstances of your child being born
- + Tulving - found that 3 ppts showed consistent differences in cortisol blood flow patterns between semantic and episodic thinking- this suggests episodic and semantic thinking involves different parts of the brain - biological differences in LTM
- -There is a lot of overlap between systems, therefore we cannot prove that a gradual move from an episodic to a semantic memory means a change in system
- Type of implicit (unconscious) memory, allows us to perform learned tasks with little conscious thought. Many occur early in life and involve motor skills
- E.g. riding a bike
- + Van Gorp et al - found that former cocaine users showed a faster increase in procedural memory than non-users, abstinence from cocaine causes a dopamine increase, suggesting dopamine plays a part in procedural LTM.
- -There is a lack of research in deciding which brain areas are involved in procedural memory.
+ Milner: HM case study
- He found after brain damage HM could not form new episodic or semantic memories but he could form new procedural memories
+Cases of brain damage support this as sometimes some areas of memory are effected, e.g. STM, while others aren't, e.g. LTM