Eisenhower's Foreign Policy (Developments in Western and Eastern…
Eisenhower's Foreign Policy
Khrushchev took over as new leader of USSR when Stalin died in 1953
Didn't want space to 'Go Red', so invested lots of money into the space race 1957. US lost space race.
Arms Race: US had far more nuclear weapons than USSR ready to fly in 15 minutes. 1957, US had 5543 nuclear weapons compared to USSR's 650. Dulles 'New Look' convinced Eisenhower to build up nuclear stockpile.
Developments in Western and Eastern Europe
Khrushchev 'Secret Speech' started process of destalinisation under Khrushchev meaning USSR at risk of riots because CIA leaked this information
Eisenhower seen as Great Liberator of Europe so expected to support Hungary in riots/protests. Khrushchev sent troops to Hungary in 1956, killing 3000 people. US failed to help Hungary, Eisenhower couldn't use any of Truman's foreign policy to help him = divide between two spheres.
Khrushchev saw Hungary as success and wanted to remove Western control on East Germany. 1958 demanded forces out of West Berlin within 6 months but 20% of population had fled East Germany by 1961
Eisenhower didn't want repeat of Berlin Airlift. Berlin symbolic of control over communism, refused to comply with Khrushchev's demands so invited him, on 15 September 1959, for 11-Day tour of US. Eisenhower agreed to visit Moscow the following year. (didn't happen)
Eisenhower visit to Moscow impossible when USSR shot down U-2 Spy plane 1st May 1960. Khrushchev thought Dulles responsible for the spy planes.
Khrushchev produced pilot Gary Powers so Eisenhower was forced to admit he had ordered spy missions. Proposed meeting between Khrushchev and Eisenhower postponed for six months by which time new president would be in place.
Reactions to the rise of Communism in Asia
Taiwan strategically important for US after Korean war (Mao claimed it was part of China and Truman was willing to let it be retaken). Jiang Jieshi (established repub. of china on Taiwan after Mao victory with communism in China) allowed Taiwan to be US naval base. Mao shelled two islands close to Chinese mainland 1954 (in Taiwan)
Eisenhower reacted to shellings of islands Quemoy and Matsu by securing the Formosa Resolution in Jan 1955 securing the defence of Taiwan. J.F Dulles said US considering nuclear attack on China so 1st May China surrendered and stopped bombing. US believed they'd contained China
War in Korea still raging when Eisenhower visited on 2 Dec 1952.
US military power used. 27th July 1953 armistice = north and south Korea divided at 38th Parallel. Dulles (US) told China and N. Korea that they were willing to use atomic weapons to contain communism. Aggression successful tactic and strengthened Eisenhower FP.
1954 war between Ho Chi Minh (Vietminh communism) and France turned against Europeans. Truman had supported the French in this war but French public support slipping.
Eisenhower agreed to B-26 bombers while Dulles suggested providing France with nuclear bomb. 'Operation Vulture' (US intervention w. Vietnam) was rejected by Eisenhower. Geneva peace talks in May 1954, Ho Chi Minh in strong position as defeated French at Dien Bien Phu. 20 July 1954 Vietnam divided North and South and would hold general elections by 1956. Diem anti-communism acts against buddhists in Vietnam and US ignored this (turned blind eye) as better than communism. Eisenhower avoided military intervention in Vietnam, hoped SEATO would contain communism in Asia.
Responses to crises in Middle East
Tensions regarding Israel were on going (see pg. 60) (primarily Truman)
July 1956 Nasser (Egypt) nationalised Suez Canal (vital waterway for trade between Europe and Asia). Planned to gain money from this to fund Aswan Dam to industrialise Egypt. Britain and France and Israel secret deal against Egypt where Israel would attack Egypt after Europe called ceasefire (peace).
All 3 powers thought they had support of Eisenhower but he didn't want to be seen to support Imperialism in midst of re-election. Used financial pressures to force Brit and France into withdrawal. Nasser didn't side with USSR or US so they were both willing to help him with building the dam.
Eisenhower issued doctrine Jan 1957 committing USA to help any nation requesting assistance against armed aggression from communist countries. $200 mill funded.