Week 1: Cognitive Psychology (Roots in Philosophy (Rene Descartes-…
Week 1: Cognitive Psychology
Roots in Philosophy
Rene Descartes- Cartesian Dualism
: Pursuit of truth through realism. 1500-1600
John Locke- Empiricism
: truth through observation 1600-1700
David Hume- Positivism
: scientific methods. everything can be reduced to observable material. Doctrine of the association of ideas. 1700
Bishop George Berkeley- Idealism
: Visual perception by reflection of light and colour -late 1600-1700
Wilhelm Wundt- Introspection
: First psych department in Leipzig 1894. Charles Spearman, G.Stanley Hall, James Mckeen Cattell. Tried to make psychology scientific.
1800-1900: memory research, repeated observations with different stimuli.
USA: James McKeen Cattell, William James
Evolution: Charles Darwin, Francis Galton
: Food>Salivation. Food+Bell>Salivation. Bell>Salivation
Classical: neutral stimuli. Learning consequences dono mein hai. But iss mein it is stimuli before the response occurs
Operant: iss mein it is from the association of a response with its consequences.
Joh n B Watson
: Psychology should be based upon observable things only.
Weird guy with the infant theory
: He said ke humans bhi baki mammals ki tarah evolve kiye hain which led to the research by other behaviourists on animals to see if their behaviour can explain human behaviour as well.
: Godfather of behaviourism. Studied verbal behaviour and koi million books etc. Inn ki education wali techniques achi thi.
Behaviour= Consequence. Probability that the action would be repeated in the future depends on the consequence. Operant instrumental conditioning.
More likely and less likely accordingly.
Strengthened if reinforced. Diminished if punished
Cognitive Rebellion: George Miller, Naom Chomsky, Herb Simon. 1956
: Theoretical linguistics+computer stimulation of cognitive processes+human experimental psychology. All together
ne aik book hee likh di against hote hote.
Cognitive Approach- Information Processing: Info from environment is processed in an organised manner, involving internal processes, lab experiments se pata chalay ga ke kya processes hain.
Kuhn- Paradigm Shift 1970
Ulric Neisser 1967- first cognitive psych book
Applications of behaviourism: treating people with phobias, anxieties, obsessive disorder. Gradual exposure to the feared stimulus.