dimensions of organizational buying (influences on organizational buying…
dimensions of organizational buying
initiators, users, deciders, influencers, buyers and gatekeepers
identify who plays each role, target communication at them and develop products to satisfy their needs.谁扮演每个角色，瞄准他们的沟通，并开发产品以满足他们的需求
How organizations buy
recognition of problem (need)
Marketers can influence need recognition and gain competitive advantage by entering the process early
determination of specification and quantity of needed item,
search for and qualification of potential sources,
acquisition and analysis of proposals
evaluation of proposals and selection of supplier(s),
selection of an order routine,
performance feedback and evaluation
influences on organizational buying behaviour
there can be large gains for suppliers entering the decision process early,
but heavy investment is usually needed.
建立一个防守的位置，以防止新的潜在供应商。in-supplier should build a defensible position to keep out new potential suppliers
out-suppliers, a key task is to reduce the risk of change for the buyers so that a modified rebuy will result.对于外向供应商而言，重要的任务是减少买方的变更风险，从而导致修改后的重建。
Product types consist of materials, components, plant and equipment, and maintenance items.
recognize that the people who take part in the purchase decision usually change according to product type, and channel communications accordingly.
importance of purchase depends on the costs involved and the uncertainty (risk) 购买的重要性取决于所涉及的成本和不确定性（风险）
very important decisions, heavy investment is likely to be required on the part of suppliers非常重要的决定，供应商可能需要大量投资，,
risk-reduction strategies (e.g. guarantees) may be needed to reduce uncertainty可能需要降低风险的策略（例如担保）来减少不确定性。.
their marketing implications
Other marketing mix decisions such as product design will also depend on an understanding of choice criteria其他营销组合决策，如产品设计也将取决于对选择标准的理解
technical choice criteria can be technical, economic, social (organizational) and personal.c t important
change Choice criteria can change over time necessitating a change